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Technical Paper

Performance of a Printed Bimetallic (Stainless Steel and Bronze) Engine Head Operating under Stoichiometric and Lean Spark Ignited (SI) Combustion of Natural Gas

Additive manufacturing was used to fabricate a head for an automotive-scale single-cylinder engine operating on natural gas. The head was consisted of a bimetallic composition of stainless steel and bronze. The engine performance using the bimetallic head was compared against the stock cast iron head. The heads were tested at two speeds (1200 and 1800 rpm), two brake mean effective pressures (6 and 10 bar), and two equivalence ratios (0.7 and 1.0). The bimetallic head showed good durability over the test and produced equivalent efficiencies, exhaust temperatures, and heat rejection to the coolant to the stock head. Higher combustion temperatures and advanced combustion phasing resulted from use with the bimetallic head. The implication is that with optimization of the valve timing, an efficiency benefit may be realized with the bimetallic head.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fast Charging of Lithium-Ion Cells: Performance and Post-Test Results

The effect of charge rate was determined using constant-current (CC) and the USABC Fast-Charge (FC) tests on commercial lithium-ion cells. Charging at high rates caused performance decline in the cells. Representing the resistance data as ΔR vs. Rn-1 plots was shown to be a viable method to remove the ambiguity inherent in the time-based analyses of the data. Comparing the ΔR vs. Rn-1 results, the change in resistance was proportional to charge rate in both the CC and FC cell data, with the FC cells displaying a greater rate of change. Changes, such as delamination, at the anode were seen in both CC and FC cells. The amount of delamination was proportional to charge rate in the CC cells. No analogous trend was seen in the FC cells; extensive delamination was seen in all cases. These changes may be due to the interaction of processes, such as lithium plating and i2R heating.
Journal Article

X-ray Imaging of Cavitation in Diesel Injectors

Cavitation plays a significant role in high pressure diesel injectors. However, cavitation is difficult to measure under realistic conditions. X-ray phase contrast imaging has been used in the past to study the internal geometry of fuel injectors and the structure of diesel sprays. In this paper we extend the technique to make in-situ measurements of cavitation inside unmodified diesel injectors at pressures of up to 1200 bar through the steel nozzle wall. A cerium contrast agent was added to a diesel surrogate, and the changes in x-ray intensity caused by changes in the fluid density due to cavitation were measured. Without the need to modify the injector for optical access, realistic injection and ambient pressures can be obtained and the effects of realistic nozzle geometries can be investigated. A range of single and multi-hole injectors were studied, both sharp-edged and hydro-ground. Cavitation was observed to increase with higher rail pressures.
Journal Article

Lignin-Derived Carbon Fiber as a Co-Product of Refining Cellulosic Biomass

Lignin by-products from biorefineries has the potential to provide a low-cost alternative to petroleum-based precursors to manufacture carbon fiber, which can be combined with a binding matrix to produce a structural material with much greater specific strength and specific stiffness than conventional materials such as steel and aluminum. The market for carbon fiber is universally projected to grow exponentially to fill the needs of clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and to improve the fuel economies in vehicles through lightweighting. In addition to cellulosic biofuel production, lignin-based carbon fiber production coupled with biorefineries may provide $2,400 to $3,600 added value dry Mg−1 of biomass for vehicle applications. Compared to producing ethanol alone, the addition of lignin-derived carbon fiber could increase biorefinery gross revenue by 30% to 300%.
Technical Paper

Recycling of the Changing Automobile and Its Impact on Sustainability

Over 250 million vehicles are operating on United States roads and highways and over 12 million of them reach the end of their useful lives annually. These end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) contain over 24 million tons (21.8 million metric tonnes) of materials including ferrous and non-ferrous metals, polymers, glass, and automotive fluids. They also contain many parts and components that are still useable and some that could be economically rebuilt or remanufactured. Dismantlers acquire the ELVs and recover from them parts for resale “as-is” or after remanufacturing. The dismantler then sells what remains of the vehicle, the “hulk”, to a shredder who shreds it to recover and sell the metals. Presently, the remaining non-metallic materials, commonly known as shredder residue, are mostly landfilled. The vehicle manufacturers, now more than ever, are working hard to build more energy efficient and safer, more affordable vehicles.
Technical Paper

Impact of Recycling Automotive Lightweighting Materials on Sustainability

A sustainable activity is one that is economically attractive, environmentally friendly and provides a beneficial service to society in a safe and responsible manner. Having a sustainable operation is a target that today’s industries are striving to attain. The automotive industry and its products are major users of natural resources and a source of greenhouse emissions. In order to reduce its energy consumption and greenhouse emissions the industry is using more lightweighting materials in manufacturing its products. These materials include polymers, composites, aluminum and magnesium. The increased interest in hybrid vehicles will increase the need for new materials such as lithium, cobalt and nickel. At the same time, regulations are calling for recycling more of the obsolete vehicles. Replacing the steel, which is recyclable, with lighter materials will result in a reduction in the recycling rate of vehicles unless the lightweighting materials are recycled.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Failure Modes Induced by Plastic Strain Localization in Dual Phase Steels

Microstructure level inhomogeneities between the harder martensite phase and the softer ferrite phase render the dual phase (DP) steels more complicated failure mechanisms and associated failure modes compared to the conventionally used low alloy homogenous steels. This paper examines the failure mode DP780 steel under different loading conditions using finite element analyses on the microstructure levels. Micro-mechanics analyses based on the actual microstructures of DP steel are performed. The two-dimensional microstructure of DP steel was recorded by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plastic work hardening properties of the ferrite phase was determined by the synchrotron-based high-energy X-ray diffraction technique. The work hardening properties of the martensite phase were calibrated and determined based on the uniaxial tensile test results. Under different loading conditions, different failure modes are predicted in the form of plastic strain localization.
Technical Paper

Mass Balance and Composition Analysis of Shredder Residue

The process of shredding end-of-life vehicles to recover metals results in a byproduct commonly referred to as shredder residue. The four and a half million metric tons of shredder residue produced annually in the United States is presently land filled. To meet the challenges of automotive materials recycling, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting research at Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP) of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) and the American Plastics Council. This paper presents the results of a study that was conducted by Argonne to determine variations in the composition of shredder residue from different shredders. Over 90 metric tons of shredder residues were processed through the Argonne pilot plant. The contents of the various separated streams were quantitatively analyzed to determine their composition and to identify materials that should be targeted for recovery.
Technical Paper

Technologies for Recycling Shredder Residue

Recovering metals from obsolete automobiles, home appliances, and other metal-containing obsolete durables and other scrap involves shredding these objects and separating the reusable metals from the shredded material by using magnets, eddy current separators, and metal detectors. Over 12 million automobiles are shredded annually in the United States alone, and almost all of the 4.5 million metric tonnes (5 million short tons) of the shredder residue produced in the United States annually is disposed of in landfills. Over 13.6 million tonnes (15 million tons) of shredder residue is generated worldwide every year. The rise in disposal costs is further exacerbated in that the percentage of shredder residue that must be disposed of, in comparison with the percentage of marketable recovered metals, is increasing because of the increasing content of polymers in automobiles and in home appliances.
Technical Paper

Nanoparticle-enhanced Heat Transfer Fluids for Spacecraft Thermal Control Systems

The addition of metal nanoparticles to standard coolant fluids dramatically increases the thermal conductivity of the liquid. The properties of the prepared nanofluids will allow for lighter, smaller, and higher efficiency spacecraft thermal control systems to be developed. Nanofluids with spherical or rod-shaped metal nanoparticles were investigated. At a volume concentration of 0.5%, the room temperature thermal conductivity of a 2 nm spherical gold nanoparticle-water solution was increased by more than 10% over water alone. Silver nanorods increased the thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol by 53% and water by 26%.
Technical Paper

Ultrafast X-Ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process

Propagation-based and phase-enhanced x-ray imaging was developed as a unique metrology technique to visualize the internal structure of high-pressure fuel injection nozzles. We have visualized the microstructures inside 200-μm fuel injection nozzles in a 3-mm-thick steel housing using this novel technique. Furthermore, this new x-ray-based metrology technique has been used to directly study the highly transient needle motion in the nozzles in situ and in real-time, which is virtually impossible by any other means. The needle motion has been shown to have the most direct effect on the fuel jet structure and spray formation immediately outside of the nozzle. In addition, the spray cone-angle has been perfectly correlated with the numerically simulated fuel flow inside the nozzle due to the transient nature of the needle during the injection.
Technical Paper

Development in Lost Foam Casting of Magnesium

Preliminary work was conducted in the casting of magnesium using the lost foam casting process. The lost foam or expendable pattern casting (EPC) process is capable of making extremely complicated part shapes at acceptable soundness levels and with low manufacturing costs. Standard test shapes were used to determine the ability of the magnesium to fill the mold and to assess the types of defects encountered. This paper will briefly explain how this project evolved including the developmental strategies formed, the products selected, the casting trials performed, and the casting results.
Technical Paper

Nanofluids for Vehicle Thermal Management

Applying nanotechnology to thermal engineering, ANL has addressed the interesting and timely topic of nanofluids. We have developed methods for producing both oxide and metal nanofluids, studied their thermal conductivity, and obtained promising results: (1) Stable suspensions of nanoparticles can be achieved. (2) Nanofluids have significantly higher thermal conductivities than their base liquids. (3) Measured thermal conductivities of nanofluids are much greater than predicted. For these reasons, nanofluids show promise for improving the design and performance of vehicle thermal management systems. However, critical barriers to further development and application of nanofluid technology are agglomeration of nanoparticles and oxidation of metallic nanoparticles. Therefore, methods to prevent particle agglomeration and degradation are required.
Technical Paper

Near-Frictionless Carbon Coatings for Use in Fuel Injectors and Pump Systems Operating with Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuels

While sulfur in diesel fuels helps reduce friction and prevents wear and galling in fuel pump and injector systems, it also creates environmental pollution in the form of hazardous particulates and SO2 emissions. The environmental concern is the driving force behind industry's efforts to come up with new alternative approaches to this problem. One such approach is to replace sulfur in diesel fuels with other chemicals that would maintain the antifriction and antiwear properties provided by sulfur in diesel fuels while at the same time reducing particulate emissions. A second alternative might be to surface-treat fuel injection parts (i.e., nitriding, carburizing, or coating the surfaces) to reduce or eliminate failures associated with the use of low-sulfur diesel fuels. Our research explores the potential usefulness of a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) film developed at Argonne National Laboratory in alleviating the aforementioned problems.
Technical Paper

Clean and Cost-effective Dry Boundary Lubricants for Aluminum Forming

Preliminary research in our laboratory has demonstrated that boric acid is an effective lubricant with an unusual capacity to reduce the sliding friction (providing friction coefficients as low as 0.02) and wear of metallic and ceramic materials. More recent studies have revealed that water or methanol solutions of boric acid can be used to prepare strongly bonded layers of boric acid on aluminum surfaces. It appears that boric acid molecules have a strong tendency to bond chemically to the naturally oxidized surfaces of aluminum and its alloys and to make these surfaces very slippery. Recent metal-formability tests indicated that the boric acid films applied to aluminum surfaces worked quite well, improving draw scale performance by 58 to 75%.
Technical Paper

Separation Techniques for Auto Shredder Residue

Disposal of automobile shredder residue (ASR), remaining from the reclamation of steel from junked automobiles, promises to be an increasing environmental and economic concern. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is investigating alternative technology for recovering value from ASR while also, it is hoped, lessening landfill disposal concerns. Of the ASR total, some 20% by weight consists of plastics. Preliminary work at ANL is being directed toward developing a protocol, both mechanical and chemical (solvent dissolution), to separate and recover polyurethane foam and the major thermoplastic fraction from ASR. Feasibility has been demonstrated in laboratory-size equipment.