Internal Nozzle Flow Simulations of the ECN Spray C Injector under Realistic Operating Conditions
In this study, three-dimensional large eddy simulations were performed to study the internal nozzle flow of the ECN Spray C diesel injector. Realistic nozzle geometry, full needle motion, and internal flow imaging data obtained from X-ray measurements were employed to initialize and validate the CFD model. The influence of injection pressure and fuel properties were investigated, and the effect of mesh size was discussed. The results agreed well with the experimental data of mass flow rate and correctly captured the flow structures inside the orifice. Simulations showed that the pressure drop near the sharp orifice inlet triggered flow separation, resulting in the ingestion of ambient gas into the orifice via a phenomenon known as hydraulic flip. At higher injection pressure, the pressure drop was more significant as the liquid momentum increased and the stream inertia was less prone to change its direction.