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Journal Article

Maximizing Net Present Value of a Series PHEV by Optimizing Battery Size and Vehicle Control Parameters

2010-10-19
2010-01-2310
For a series plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), it is critical that batteries be sized to maximize vehicle performance variables, such as fuel efficiency, gasoline savings, and zero emission capability. The wide range of design choices and the cost of prototype vehicles calls for a development process to quickly and systematically determine the design characteristics of the battery pack, including its size, and vehicle-level control parameters that maximize the net present value (NPV) of a vehicle during the planning stage. Argonne National Laboratory has developed Autonomie, a modeling and simulation framework. With support from The MathWorks, Argonne has integrated an optimization algorithm and parallel computing tools to enable the aforementioned development process. This paper presents a study that utilized the development process, where the NPV is the present value of all the future expenses and savings associated with the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Analyzing the Uncertainty in the Fuel Economy Prediction for the EPA MOVES Binning Methodology

2007-04-16
2007-01-0280
Developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Multi-scale mOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) is used to estimate inventories and projections through 2050 at the county or national level for energy consumption, nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) from highway vehicles. To simulate a large number of vehicles and fleets on numerous driving cycles, EPA developed a binning technique characterizing the energy rate for varying Vehicle Specific Power (VSP) under predefined vehicle speed ranges. The methodology is based upon the assumption that the vehicle behaves the same way for a predefined vehicle speed and power demand. While this has been validated for conventional vehicles, it has not been for advanced vehicle powertrains, including hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) where the engine can be ON or OFF depending upon the battery State-of-Charge (SOC).
Technical Paper

Impacts of Combining Hydrogen ICE with Fuel Cell System Using PSAT

2006-04-03
2006-01-0037
Because of their high efficiency and low emission potential, fuel cell vehicles are undergoing extensive research and development. However, several major barriers have to be overcome to enable a hydrogen economy. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, the automotive manufacturers developed a hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. Despite being cheaper, the hydrogen-fueled ICE offers a lower driving range because of its lower efficiency. The current study evaluates the impact of combining a hydrogen-fueled ICE with a fuel cell to maximize fuel economy while minimizing the cost and amount of onboard fuel needed to maintain an acceptable driving range.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Sensitivity to Vehicle Mass for Advanced Vehicle Powertrains

2006-04-03
2006-01-0665
In 2002, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) launched FreedomCAR, which is a partnership with automakers to advance high-technology research needed to produce practical, affordable advanced vehicles that have the potential to significantly improve fuel economy in the near-term. Advanced materials (including metals, polymers, composites, and intermetallic compounds) can play an important role in improving the efficiency of transportation vehicles. Weight reduction is one of the most practical ways of increasing vehicle fuel economy while reducing exhaust emissions. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of vehicle mass reduction for several vehicle platforms and advanced powertrain technologies, including Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and fuel cell HEVs, in comparison with conventional vehicles. We also explain the main factors influencing the fuel economy sensitivity.
Technical Paper

Integrating Data, Performing Quality Assurance, and Validating the Vehicle Model for the 2004 Prius Using PSAT

2006-04-03
2006-01-0667
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), working with the FreedomCAR Partnership, maintains the hybrid vehicle simulation software, Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). The importance of component models and the complexity involved in setting up optimized control laws require validation of the models and control strategies. Using its Advanced Powertrain Research Facilities (APRF), ANL thoroughly tested the 2004 Toyota Prius to validate the PSAT drivetrain. In this paper, we will first describe the methodology used to quality check test data. Then, we will explain the validation process leading to the simulated vehicle control strategy tuning, which is based on the analysis of the differences between test and simulation. Finally, we will demonstrate the validation of PSAT Prius component models and control strategy, using APRF vehicle test data.
Technical Paper

Comparing Apples to Apples: Well-to-Wheel Analysis of Current ICE and Fuel Cell Vehicle Technologies

2004-03-08
2004-01-1015
Because of their high efficiency and low emissions, fuel-cell vehicles are undergoing extensive research and development. When considering the introduction of advanced vehicles, a complete well-to-wheel evaluation must be performed to determine the potential impact of a technology on carbon dioxide and Green House Gases (GHGs) emissions. Several modeling tools developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) were used to evaluate the impact of advanced powertrain configurations. The Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) transient vehicle simulation software was used with a variety of fuel cell system models derived from the General Computational Toolkit (GCtool) for pump-to-wheel (PTW) analysis, and GREET (Green house gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation) was used for well-to-pump (WTP) analysis. This paper compares advanced propulsion technologies on a well-to-wheel energy basis by using current technology for conventional, hybrid and fuel cell technologies.
Technical Paper

Energy Storage Requirements for Fuel Cell Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-1302
Because of their high efficiency and low emissions, fuel-cell vehicles are undergoing extensive research and development. As the entire powertrain system needs to be optimized, the requirements of each component to achieve FreedomCAR goals need to be determined. With the collaboration of FreedomCAR fuel cell, energy storage, and vehicle Technical Teams, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) used several modeling tools to define the energy storage requirements for fuel cell vehicles. For example, the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), which is a transient vehicle simulation software, was used with a transient fuel cell model derived from the General Computational Toolkit (GCtool). This paper describes the impact of degree of hybridization, control strategy, and energy storage technology on energy storage requirements for a fuel cell SUV vehicle platform.
Technical Paper

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Advanced SUV Fuel Cell Vehicles

2003-03-03
2003-01-0415
Fuel cell vehicles are currently undergoing extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. A complete well-to-wheels evaluation is helpful when considering the introduction of advanced vehicles that could use a new fuel, such as hydrogen. Several modeling tools developed by Argonne National Laboratory were used to evaluate the impact of several new vehicle configurations. A transient vehicle simulation software code, PSAT (Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit), was used with a transient fuel cell model derived from GCTool (General Computational Toolkit); and GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation) was employed in estimating well-to-tank performances. This paper compares the well-to-wheels impacts of several advanced SUVs, including conventional, parallel and series hybrid-electric and fuel cell vehicles.
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