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Technical Paper

Failure Analysis and Multi Frequency Swept Sine Testing of Automotive Engine Oil Sump

Automotive business is more focused towards delivering a highly durable and reliable product at an optimum cost. Anything falls short of customer expectation will ruin the manufacturer’s reputation. To exterminate this, all automotive components shall undergo stringent testing protocol during the design validation process. Nevertheless, there are certain factors in the field which cannot be captured during design validation. This paper aims at developing a validation methodology for engine oil sump by simulating field failure. In few of our vehicles, field failure was observed in engine oil sump near the drain plug location. Preliminary analysis was carried out to find the potential causes for failure. Based on the engine test bed results, multi frequency swept sine testing was carried out in laboratory. Field failure was simulated in the lab test and the root causes for failure were found out.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Test Facility for Suspension Dampers of Commercial Vehicle

In the present scenario, delivering the right product at the right time is very crucial in automotive sector to grab the competitive advantage. In the development stage, validation process devours most of the product development time. This paper focuses on reducing the validation time for damper (shock absorber) variants which is a vital component in commercial vehicle suspension system. New test facility is designed for both performance test and endurance testing of six samples simultaneously. In addition, it provides force trend monitoring during the validation which increases the efficiency of test with an enhanced control system. This new facility is also designed to provide side loading capability for individual dampers in addition to the conventional axial loading. The key parameter during validation is control of damper seal temperature within the range of 70-90°C. A cooling circuit is designed to provide an efficient temperature control by re-circulating cold water.
Journal Article

Design and Analysis of Lifting Pusher Drop Axle for Heavy Commercial Vehicle

Lifting axles are auxiliary axles that provide increased load carrying capacity in heavy commercial vehicles. Lift axle gives better fuel efficiency as well as it reduces the operational costs by means of increasing the loading carrying capacity. These axles are raised when the vehicle is in unloaded condition, thus increasing the traction on remaining wheels and reducing the tire wear which in turn lower down the maintenance cost of the vehicle. Lifting height and force requires to lift the whole mechanism and are two main considerable factors to design the lifting axle mechanism. Although in India currently, the use of lift mechanism of single tire with continuous axle is more common. But in the case of pusher axle, continuous axle is unable to lift more after certain height because of the draft angle of the propeller shaft, and single tire axle which has less load carrying capacity up to 6T (Tons).
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Bimetal Brake Drum to Improve Heat Dissipation and Weight Reduction

Automotive component light weighing is one of the major goals for original equipment manufacturers (OEM's) globally. Significant advances are being made in developing light-weight high performance components. In order to achieve weight savings in vehicles, the OEM's and component suppliers are increasingly using ultra-high-strength steel, aluminum, magnesium, plastics and composites. One way is to develop a light weight high performance component through multi material concept. In this present study, a bimetal brake drum of inner ring cast iron and outer shell of aluminum has been made in two different design configurations. In two different designs, 40 and 26% weight saving has been achieved as compared to conventional gray cast iron brake drum. The component level performance has been evaluated by dynamometer test. The heat dissipation and wear behavior has been analyzed. In both designs, the wear performance of the bimetal brake drum was similar to the gray cast iron material.
Technical Paper

Cost effective and Sustainable Alternate Material for Air Brake Tubings (ABT) in Commercial Vehicles

The automotive industry is constantly looking for new alternate material and cost is one of the major driving factors for selecting the right material. ABT is a safety critical part and care has to be taken while selecting the appropriate material. Polyamide (PA12) [1] is the commonly available material which is currently used for ABT applications. Availability and material cost is always a major concern for commercial vehicle industries. This paper presents the development of ABT with an alternative material which has superior heat resistance. Thermoplastic Elastomer Ether Ester Block Copolymer (TEEE) [3] materials were tried in place Polyamide 12 for many good reasons. The newly employed material has better elastic memory and improved resistance to battery acid, paints and solvents. It doesn't require plasticizer for extrusion process because of which it has got excellent long term flexibility and superior kink resistance over a period of time.
Technical Paper

Durability Enhancement of Spring Seat in Bogie Suspension

Spring seat plays major role in bogie suspension; which is guiding and controlling the leaf spring for better suspension and also to withstand the compressive load from leafs. Currently used spring seats are failing frequently in medium and heavy duty vehicles, which lead to customer concerns by higher idle time and part replacement cost. Thickness of the spring seat can't be increased by large extent due to packaging constraints in the vehicle. Stress levels identified by FEA method are found higher than the current material capacity. With these constraints, the spring seat has been re-designed with improved strength and ductility of material by modern technology - Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI). The parts have been developed and assembled in various tipper applications and performance was studied. The developed spring seat shows five times superior durability compare to existing design.
Technical Paper

Design and Weight Optimization of an Automobile Link - A Case Study

A case study was conducted on the design, optimization and material replacement for an automobile suspension link. The link is part of a four bar mechanism. The mechanism was developed in Adams/Car® and multibody simulation was carried out on it. The joint forces arrived from the simulation were exported for finite element analysis of the components in OptiStruct®. Finally, topology and shape optimization was conducted to reduce the weight of the original component. A feasibility study was also carried out to replace the fabricated steel link with a heat treated cast iron link. Heat treated cast iron being lighter than steel, ensures reduction in weight without compromising on strength. The experiment resulted in a feasible optimized shape which was 32% lighter than the current shape of the link being used in the vehicle, while keeping the stresses and displacements within limits.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Model of Air Suspension for Multi Body Simulation of the Commercial Passenger Vehicle

Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) simulation software is used in product development cycle to reduce the lead time to market. These software have standard parametric templates for modeling metallic suspension systems, which can be quickly modified and used in full vehicle models for ride, handling analysis and the durability load predictions. Generally every Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) has unique air suspension arrangement and hence standard template is not available for air suspension modeling in commercial MBD software. Air suspension with self-leveling control mechanism is preferred over metallic suspension in the commercial passenger vehicle like bus for smooth ride comfort. Hence custom made templates for these systems need to be developed for use with MBD software. In this paper, a simplified model of air suspension is presented.
Technical Paper

Design and Application of ECU Controlled Constant Pressure Exhaust Brake on 5.7 l Engine for ICV Application

To share the excessive load on the service brakes and for safety of the engine valve trains in downhill gradients heavy duty diesel engines are installed with exhaust brake. The duty cycle of an engine is high in mid-range speeds, thus an exhaust brake system with higher braking power at mid- range speeds is required. Automatic actuation of exhaust brake will ensure effective utilization of the available engine braking power and safety. A higher braking efficiency will also lead to improved vehicle downhill performance. This calls for design and application of constant pressure exhaust brake controlled through Electronic Control Unit (ECU) of the vehicle. In the present work, an attempt to applicate constant pressure exhaust brake controlled through ECU of the vehicle on 5.7 l heavy duty diesel engine was made. The limitations of the system were reviewed. A 1-D thermodynamic simulation was used to predict the performance of exhaust brake.
Technical Paper

Cab Suspension Optimization Using Matlab

Driver's ride comfort is an important characteristic in heavy commercial vehicle cab design. Optimizing the ride behavior for different cab variants and vehicle applications is a challenge for cab design and development engineers. Suspension parameter tuning with physical test is time consuming and costly. Therefore, a lumped parameter quarter car model of suspended cab is developed in MATLAB® tool SimScape which includes cab mass, springs and dampers for predicting ride behavior as per ISO 2631. The study is done for a 25 t rigid truck. The input to the system is displacement at axles and the output is acceleration measured at cab and chassis level. This output is correlated with test data obtained from physical measurements using Power Spectral Density (PSD) curves, bode plots and level cross count. This proved that simple lumped parameter models which use very few input parameters can be effectively employed in analysis of cab ride in initial design phases.
Technical Paper

Noise Reduction at Source for a Vehicle Using Free Layer Damper

Traditional methods of noise control in most application are by using absorption and barrier techniques. These involve brackets & clamps for assembly, carrier material to hold absorbing materials. Usage of absorbing materials which could be high, as this is based on noise control technique by allowing source to produce noise and hence the cost is also higher. Based on the survey, several demerits have been studied in using absorption and barrier noise control techniques in the field of an automobile application. This paper deals with the noise control by using the application of free layer damping technique thereby overcoming the demerits happening in using former techniques, helping better control of noise in the environment and solutions which are more durable. The methodology followed here before going for the FLD application is identification of noise radiating components which needs to be damped in a system or subsystem.
Technical Paper

VDQI - An Approach to Predict Vehicle Design Quality at Early Stages of Product Development

In today's world with a dynamic market and varying customer expectations, it becomes inevitable that we find means of recognizing customer needs with all dimensions and instill them as inherent specifications of a product. Automobiles no way fall away from these intangible demands of the changing world, as personal conveyance (car/motorcycle/scooter) nowadays is more of a basic need. It becomes more of challenge to automotive manufacturers, to offer continuously improving quality products, at competitive prices to be in business. It's very important that as automotive designers we recognize quality in its totality and establish a predictive methodology to inculcate quality into the design at early stages of vehicle development.
Technical Paper

Seat Suspension Based on Variable Absorber System Stiffness for Enhanced Ride Comfort

One of the important methods by which vibrations of a body are reduced is by the use of vibration absorbers or tuned absorbers. This technique involves attaching a spring mass system, called absorber system, to the vibrating body (also called primary body). This paper is a case study dealing with a primary system, here a driver seat, to attenuate its response to disturbance. It has high damped natural frequency compared to the base excitation frequency, which was collected from test data. The paper discusses the variations in absorber and primary system damping ratio, mass ratio variation and usage of variable stiffness. Detailed analysis showed instability in the tuned system due to the large gap between the primary body's damped natural frequency, and the target base excitation frequency. In order to address varying target excitation frequency, an adaptive tuned absorber is suggested.