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Technical Paper

Field Failure Simulation of a Non-reactive Suspension Tie Rod for Heavy Commercial Vehicle Using a Road Simulator

2019-01-09
2019-26-0350
The suspension system in a vehicle isolates the frame and body from road shocks and vibrations which would otherwise be transferred to the passengers and goods. Heavier goods vehicles use tandem axles at the rear for load carrying. Both the axles should be inter-connected to eliminate overloading of any one axle when this goes over a bump or a ditch. One of the inter-connecting mechanism used is leaf spring with tie rod, bell crank & linkages, when the first rear axle moves over a bump, the linkages equalize the loading on the second rear axle. This paper details about the failure analysis methodology to simulate the tie rod field failure using a six poster road simulator and to identify the root cause of the failure and further corrective actions.
Technical Paper

Pass by Noise Reduction on an Intermediate Commercial Vehicle

2018-06-13
2018-01-1535
A major activity of any new vehicle development program, is to meet legal requirements of local markets. Pass by noise (PBN) test is one of the standardized tests and is used to certify new vehicles/variants for their Noise emissions. Certification for noise emissions of commercial vehicles is achieved by measuring external sound levels according to procedures defined by standards such as IS: 3028 for Indian market. Before a physical proto-vehicle is assembled, various systems and subsystems are readily made available by suppliers off the shelf. During final design validation of the vehicle by mule-vehicle testing, PBN target compliance need be assured for all these systems in order to meet overall PBN target. The PBN on an Intermediate commercial vehicle (ICV) migrated to the latest Exhaust emission standard, was the subject of this study. This vehicle emitted PBN greater than accepted threshold.
Technical Paper

Effects of Steering System Friction and Jacking Force on On-Center Driving Performance in a Commercial Vehicle

2017-01-10
2017-26-0339
In heavy commercial vehicle segment in India, driver comfort and feel was largely ignored. Fierce competition in the recent years and buyer’s market trend is compelling the designers of heavy truck to focus more on the finer aspects of attribute refinements. Steering is one driver-Vehicle interface which the driver is engaged throughout. Comfort and feel in steering wheel is defined by parameters like steering effort, manoeuvrability, on-center feel & response, cornering feel & response, Torque dead band, return-ability etc. and is influenced by a long list of components and systems in the truck. This study focuses on the influences of jacking torque and steering system friction on the on-center driving performance. Experiments to measure the Jacking torque and steering system friction were conducted in the lab and subjective and objective assessments of on-center driving performance were later conducted at test track in two similar 12 Ton truck to correlate their effects.
Technical Paper

Study on the Effect of Allied Components in the Life of a Parabolic Spring in Passenger Vehicle Application

2017-01-10
2017-26-0313
In today competitive world, gaining customer delight is the most vital part of an automotive business. Customers’ expectations are high which need to be satisfied limitless, to stay in the business. The major expectation of a commercial vehicle customer is a vehicle without failures which involves lower spares cost and downtime. The significance of a suspension system in the new age automobiles is getting advanced. There have been many improvements in the suspension system especially in leaf springs to provide a better ride comfort, and one such modern era implementation is the Parabolic Spring which comprises of fewer leaves with varying thickness from the center to the ends without inter-leaf friction. Study reveals that parabolic spring exhibits better ride comfort, but less life compared to a conventional leaf spring which leads to the increase in downtime of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Testing by (CSCPV) Combined Systematic Calculated Pre-Validation Method

2017-01-10
2017-26-0319
A full-bodied validation of automotive system emphasis on a comprehensive coverage of failure modes of component on one hand and evaluation with full system for the intended function of single component on the other has for long been cumbersome to most commercial vehicle manufacturers. This paper focuses on optimizing the test method in rig testing to relieve the complexity in the structural validation as whole system level. The methodology proposed by authors focuses on accelerating the vibration testing of component by compressing the validation timelines by using CSCPV (Combined Systematic Calculated and Pre Validation) method. This method selects the components of the system for validation by VFTM (Vital Few and Trivial Many) approach from existing testing database failure data and selects the worst predominant failure cases. This CSCPV method uses systematically calculated representing mass from analysis to validate the intended component alone instead of entire system.
Technical Paper

Analytical Prediction of Residual Stresses in Cold Formed Steel Sections with Elastic - Perfectly Plastic Material Model

2017-01-10
2017-26-0169
The objective of this paper is to provide a reliable and robust mechanics based analytical approach for the accurate prediction of residual stresses in cold formed steel members. The forming residual stresses and associated equivalent plastic strains in cold formed corner sections are predicted with the assumption of elastic-perfectly plastic material model. The predicted analytical solution results are then compared with the existing analytical solution results. This work demonstrates that the exact estimation of forming residual stresses and equivalent plastic strains are possible with the inclusion of shift in neutral axis resulting from unequal thresholds of plasticity levels at the top and bottom surfaces of small radius corner sections. The predicted forming residual stresses and the associated equivalent plastic strains together define the initial conditions of corner sections for further non-linear structural behavior analysis of cold formed structures.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Steering Feel and Response with Objective Metrics in Commercial Vehicles

2015-09-29
2015-01-2766
Steering wheel being the most used tactile point in a vehicle, its feel and response is an important factor based on which the vehicle quality is judged. Engineering the right feel and response into the system requires knowledge of the objective parameters that relate to the driver perception. Extensive correlation work has been done in the past pertaining to passenger cars, but the driver requirements for commercial vehicles vary significantly. Often it becomes difficult to match the right parameters to the steering feel experienced by the drivers, since most of the standard ISO weave test units used to describe them are of zero or first order parameters. Analyzing the second order parameters gave a better method to reason driver related feel. Also, each subjective attribute was fragmented into sub-attributes to identify the reason for such a rating resulting in the identification of the major subjective parameters affecting driver ratings.
Technical Paper

Failure Analysis and Design Optimisation of Steering Linkage Pivot Shaft of Commercial Vehicle

2015-09-29
2015-01-2726
Commercial vehicles have steering systems with one or more steering links connecting the steering gear box pitman arm and front axle steering arm. In case of twin steer vehicles, intermediate pivot arm is used to transfer the motion proportionately between the two front axles. Intermediate pivot arm is also used in some longer front over-hang vehicles to overcome their packaging constraints and to optimize the mechanical leverage. The pivot shaft is a mechanical part of the intermediate pivot arm assembly upon which pivot arm can swivel in one axis. Steering forces transferred through the drag links generates resultant forces and bending moments on the pivot shaft. In this work, study has been carried out on premature failure of the pivot shaft in city bus application model (Entry + 1 step). Metallurgical analysis of failed part indicated the failure to be due to fatigue. Pivot shaft was tested in rig with similar load conditions in order to replicate the failure.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Handling Sensitivity Analysis through Numerical Simulation in Commercial Vehicles

2015-09-29
2015-01-2736
Vehicle handling is an important attribute that is directly related to vehicle safety. The rapid development of road infrastructure has resulted in a greater focus on safety and stability. Commercial vehicle stability and safety assumes higher significance because of high center of gravity (CG) and heavier loads. A gamut of parameters influence vehicle handling directly and indirectly. However, it is quite difficult to gauge through physical testing, the extent of each parameter's influence on handling. Therefore, this paper examines vehicle handling by way of a sensitivity analysis through numerical simulation. A prototype vehicle is also instrumented and tested to confirm trends and validate the results of the simulation. An Intermediate Commercial Vehicle (ICV) with Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) of around 13 tonnes is modeled and parameters like wheelbase and tyre stiffness are altered and the effect of these changes on handling parameters (yaw rate, lateral acceleration) is observed.
Technical Paper

Resolution of Engine Oil Mixing with Power Steering Oil in Steering Pump by Behavioral Study

2015-09-29
2015-01-2720
Steering gear box function is one of the important requirements in heavy vehicles in order to reduce driver fatigue. Improper functioning of steering gear box not only increases the driver fatigue, also concerns the safety of the vehicle. In this present investigation, the engine oil mixing up with steering oil has been identified and steering gear box failure has been observed in the customer vehicle. The root cause of failure has been analyzed. Based on the investigations, in particular design of steering pump has been failed at customer end. The same design of steering pump were segregated and analyzed. Initial pressure mapping study has been conducted. The pressure mapping results revealed that the cavity pressure obstructs the flow of suction pressure. It indicates that obstacle at suction port due to the existence of internal leakage that causes back pressure in the internal cavity of steering pump which sucks engine oil.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Bimetal Brake Drum to Improve Heat Dissipation and Weight Reduction

2014-09-30
2014-01-2284
Automotive component light weighing is one of the major goals for original equipment manufacturers (OEM's) globally. Significant advances are being made in developing light-weight high performance components. In order to achieve weight savings in vehicles, the OEM's and component suppliers are increasingly using ultra-high-strength steel, aluminum, magnesium, plastics and composites. One way is to develop a light weight high performance component through multi material concept. In this present study, a bimetal brake drum of inner ring cast iron and outer shell of aluminum has been made in two different design configurations. In two different designs, 40 and 26% weight saving has been achieved as compared to conventional gray cast iron brake drum. The component level performance has been evaluated by dynamometer test. The heat dissipation and wear behavior has been analyzed. In both designs, the wear performance of the bimetal brake drum was similar to the gray cast iron material.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Structural Strength of Flatbed Trailer for Service Loading Conditions

2013-09-24
2013-01-2368
Commercial vehicle payload depends on the client for which the vehicle fleet owner is operating. Load carriers like flatbed trailer offer the flexibility to be loaded with a large number of light payloads or a few numbers of massive payloads. Such load carriers have to be evaluated for various possibilities of loading patterns that could happen in the market. The objective of this work is to evaluate flatbed trailer for its structural strength for different customer application cases, using computer simulation. Structural load cases due to payloads like containers, steel coils and cement bags are arrived at. Static structural analysis using MSC Nastran is performed to evaluate for the worst customer loading pattern from structural stress point of view. This paper also describes a simplified method for simulating the effect of trailer suspension, tractor suspension and the fifth-wheel coupling in the analysis whose detailed modeling is not possible at the concept level.
Technical Paper

Bogie Suspension Noise Reduction on a Commercial Vehicle

2013-09-24
2013-01-2382
The Bogie suspensions ensure better stability at higher loads and also give the utmost reliability under extreme climatic conditions with minimum maintenance. Many vehicle manufactures have adopted for the bogie suspension at rear based on its advantages. The noises generated from the vehicle in the field includes engine noises and flow noises and hence it is very difficult to clearly discern the noise generated from suspension system of the vehicle [1]. Most suspension system noises do not come from a single part but they are caused by the coupling action between related parts, making it difficult to clearly identify the exact cases. This paper details the overall approach to identify the bogie suspension noise on a commercial vehicle and countermeasures to reduce the same.
Technical Paper

Microstructure and Wear Behavior of Austempered and as-cast Ausferritic Gray Cast Irons

2011-01-19
2011-26-0051
The mechanical and wear behaviour of an alloyed gray cast iron with ausferrite microstructure directly obtained on solidification has been compared with austempered alloyed gray iron. As-cast ausferritic gray iron shows finer ausferrite and graphite flake morphology compared to austempered alloy. The volume of retained austenite is about 30% higher in as-cast ausferritic iron due to higher amount of alloying additions. The mechanical and wear properties of as-cast ausferritic iron are almost similar to austempered alloy.
Technical Paper

Flexible Multi-body Dynamic Analysis of Multi-Cylinder Engine Valve Train

2011-01-19
2011-26-0086
In this paper, valve spring parameters are optimized based on an iterative logic with constraint on space availability, stress limit, stiffness and natural frequency of the system. The optimized valve spring configuration is used in the push rod type valve train and the valve train dynamics for different engine speed is studied using commercially available multi-body dynamic ADMAS software. The valve train components such as cam, tappet, push rod, rocker arm, valve retainers and valve are modelled as rigid bodies and the valve springs (inner and outer valve springs) are modelled as flexible bodies. Each coil of the springs is modelled as separate flexible body and contact between these coils are established. A comparative valve train dynamics analysis is also carried out with the existing and optimized valve spring combinations.
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