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Technical Paper

Impact of wheel-housing on aerodynamic drag and effect on energy consumption on an electric bus body

2019-11-21
2019-28-2394
Role of Wheel and underbody Aerodynamics of vehicle in the formation of drag forces is detrimental to the fuel (energy) consumption during the course of operation at high velocities. This paper deals with the CFD simulation of the flow around the wheels of a bus with different wheel housing arrangements. Based on benchmarking, a model of a bus is selected and analysis is performed. The aerodynamic drag coefficient is obtained and turbulence around wheels is observed using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation for different combinations of wheel-housing- at the front wheels, at the rear wheels and both in the front and rear wheels. The drag force is recorded and corresponding influence on energy consumption of a Bus is evaluated mathematically. A comparison is drawn between energy consumption of bus body without wheel housing and bus body with wheel housing. The result shows a significant reduction in drag coefficient and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Realtime Tuning and optimization of EV traction motors with controllers on E-motor testbench

2019-11-21
2019-28-2478
The need for dedicated development of indigenous electric power-train is becoming much essential in the recent times with upcoming trends and policies. Hence, The validation and optimization of the newly developed electric power-train becomes much crucial in order to ensure smooth real world operation. This can be only possible in E-motor test benches with dedicated equipment for thorough evaluation. Also, there are no practical limitations to check the peak characteristics in a controlled laboratory environment. Initially, the motor is setup by mechanically coupling with the dynamo-meter and the controller in the open loop method with constant parameters to check steady state operability without load or external parameters that affect the torque production and speed of the drive. Then progresses to closed loop method incorporating the feedback control and external parameters including torque loading at the shaft from the dynamo-meter.
Technical Paper

A Novel Method for Active Vibration Control of Steering Wheel

2019-01-09
2019-26-0180
Active control mainly comprises of three parts; sensor-detects the input disturbance, actuator -provide counter measures and control logic -processing of input disturbances and converting it into logical output. Lot of methods for active vibration control are available but this paper deals with active control of steering wheel vibrations of an LCV. A steering wheel is, one such component that directly transfers vibration to the driver. Active technique described here is implemented using accelerometer sensor, IMA (Inertial Mass Actuator) and feed forward Fx-LMS (Filtered reference Least Mean Square) control algorithm. IMA is a single-degree-of-freedom oscillator. To enable a control, IMA needs to be coupled to the structure at a single point, acting as an add-on to the passive system. Fx-LMS is a type of adaptive algorithm which is computationally simple and it also includes compensation for secondary path effects by using an estimate of the secondary path.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ambient Temperature and Inflation Pressure on Tire Temperature

2019-01-09
2019-26-0360
Tire failure is identified as a major cause of accidents on highways around the world in the recent past. A tire burst leads to loss of control of the vehicle which ends up in a catastrophe. There are various factors which are accounted for a tire burst. Heat buildup, aging of tire and cracks on tires are the major ones which are identified. A superior ability of the tire to dissipate the heat generated during operation is a major factor which prevents a tire failure. Other factors such as ambient temperature, inflation pressure etc. contributes to heat buildup which may ultimately result in tire failure. A combination of these factors might manifest as a tire failure at high speeds, the latter being an immediate cause of heat buildup. A dormant crack in the tire might develop if the temperature and pressure conditions are favorable, thus giving away at the weakest point. With regard to the temperature conditions, road conditions, inflation pressure checks etc.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Retrofit Solution for Converting a Conventional LCV into Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2019-01-09
2019-26-0117
In today’s scenario, the emission norms are getting stringent day by day due to an increased level of pollution. The world is shifting towards low carbon footprint which made it necessary to adopt efficient technologies with fewer emissions. The hybridization of vehicles has resulted in improved efficiency with lower emissions which can fulfil the near future emission norms. Retrofitting of hybrid components into a conventional IC engine vehicle is so far the best way to achieve better performance both economically and technologically. This research is primarily focused on the design and development of a novel retrofit solution of P3x architecture for the light commercial vehicle. This retrofit solution is different from other hybrid solutions in terms of powertrain. It contains an innovative add-on powertrain along with the existing powertrain. This additional powertrain consists of a pair of helical gears followed by a chain and sprocket as a coupler for traction motor.
Technical Paper

Integrated Approach for Development of Air Suspension System for a SUV Category Vehicle Using Analytical and Experimental Tools

2017-01-10
2017-26-0340
Air suspension systems had been introduced in automobiles since 1950s. These systems are being explored to improve the ride comfort, handling stability and also serve as a medium for better cargo protection. These system are well developed for buses and high end passenger sedans, also have feasibility for adapting for wide range of configurations of suspension system and axle. Passenger cars and Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) pickup category of vehicle offers different challenges such as space availability, spring selection and characterization that need to be addressed for successful implementation of air suspension in these category vehicles. This work defines methodology to implement air suspension system in SUV Pickup category vehicle. Paper work includes concept study, mathematical co-relation, and prediction of air spring characteristics and integration of experimental and analytical tool for development of air suspension system.
Technical Paper

Development of Road to Lab Steering Test Rig (ROLAST)

2017-01-10
2017-26-0315
The Steering system is one of the most safety critical systems in an automobile. With time the durability, reliability and the fine-tuning of the parameters involved in this subsystem have increased along with the competitiveness of the market. In a competitive market, accelerated testing is the key to shorter development cycles. It is observed that the majority of component manufacturers have a preference on vehicle level testing to achieve their development goals. The vehicle level trials are time consuming and lack the control and repeat-ability of a laboratory environment. This paper describes the development of a steering test rig designed to simulate the disturbances experienced on road within a controlled laboratory environment. The five axis steering rig would allow simulation of individual road wheel displacement along with steering wheel angle input and lateral steering rack displacements. The rig also is designed to be adaptable to a range of vehicle categories.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Prediction of Windscreen Wiping Area through Simulation

2017-01-10
2017-26-0257
Front windscreen wiping test is legal requirement for all motor vehicles as per standards like IS15802:2008 [1], IS15804:2008 [2] in India. This test requires windscreen mock-up/actual vehicle to be tested along with all wiping mechanisms such that minimum percentage areas to be wiped should meet the requirements specified in the IS standard. From manufacturer’s perspective this involves investment of lot of time and cost to arrive at the final design solution in order to meet the wiping requirements. The work scope in this paper is limited to bus category of vehicles. The methodology presented in this paper would enable quick design solutions for bus body builders or manufacturers to meet the wiping requirements specified in IS standard. The methodology presented in this paper was developed to carry out windscreen wiping test through commercially available simulation software.
Technical Paper

Sound Quality Evaluation of a Brake and Clutch Pedal Assembly used for Automotive Applications

2017-01-10
2017-26-0194
Sound Quality (SQ) of brake and clutch pedal assembly plays an important role in contributing to vehicle interior noise and perception of sound. Quiet operation of brake and clutch units also reflects the vehicle built and material quality. Noise emitted from these sub-assemblies has to meet certain acceptance criteria as per different OEM requirements. Not much work has been carried on this over the years to characterize and quantify the same. An attempt has been made in this paper to study the sound quality of brake and clutch pedal assemblies at component level and validate the same by identifying the parameters affecting SQ. Effect on noise at different environmental conditions was studied with typical operating cycles in a hemi-anechoic chamber. The effect of sensor switches integrated within the clutch and brake pedal on sound quality is analyzed. It is found that the operating characteristics of switches drives the noise and SQ.
Technical Paper

An Upper Bound Elemental Technique for Load Prediction of Axisymmetric Hot Forged Specimens

2017-01-10
2017-26-0168
Forging is a metal forming process involving shaping of metal by the application of compressive forces using hammer or press. Forging load of equipment is an important function of forging process and the prediction of the same is essential for selection of appropriate equipment. In this study a hot forging material i.e. 42CrMo4 steel is selected which is used in automotive components like axle, crank shaft. Hot forging experiments at 750°C are carried out on cylindrical specimens of aspect ratio 0.75 and 1.5 with true height strain (ln (ho/hf)) of 0.6. Forging load for the experiments is calculated using slab and upper bound deformation models as well as Metal forming simulation using commercially available FEA software. The upper bound models with 30% deviation from the simulation results are found to be more accurate compared to the slab models.
Technical Paper

Synthesis and Characterization of Nickel and Ni-TiO2 Nanocomposite Coatings Processed by Pulse Electro-deposition Technique

2015-01-14
2015-26-0060
Nickel electroplating is commonly used with substrates including steel, aluminum, plastic and zinc die-cast parts because of its high resistance to temperature, corrosion and wear in harsh conditions. To further enhance its tribological and mechanical properties, research works are going on to produce nano-reinforced composites of Ni with various ceramic and rare earth oxides like CeO2, ZrSiO4, SiC, TiO2, etc. The aim of present work is synthesis and characterization of Ni films and Ni based TiO2 nano-composite coating processed by pulse co-electrodeposition technique. Also, to investigate the various properties such as mechanical, wear and corrosion resistance, conductivity & thermal stability of Ni-TiO2 nanocomposites electrodeposited on steel substrate, especially the effects of the amount of nanosized TiO2 particles in Ni-TiO2 nanocomposites.
Technical Paper

Derivation of Non-linear Stiffness Characteristics for Lumped Uniaxial Springs from Hyperelastic Material Constitutive Models

2014-04-28
2014-28-0038
Hyperelastic material simulations are commonly performed in commercial FE codes due to availability of sophisticated algorithms facilitating virtual characterization of such materials in FEA easily. However, the solution time required is longer in FEA. Especially when excitation frequencies do not interfere with structural modes, flexible multibody simulation offers a lucrative and computationally inexpensive alternative. However, it is difficult to directly characterize hyperelastic materials in commercial MBS simulation codes, so the reduced solution time comes at the cost of decreased simulation accuracy, especially if the designer is provided with crude stress - strain test data. Hence, the need is to overcome the drawbacks in FEA and multibody codes, as well as to leverage best of both these codes simultaneously.
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