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Technical Paper

Uncertainty Quantification in Vibroacoustic Analysis of a Vehicle Body Using Generalized Polynomial Chaos Expansion

It is essential to include uncertainties in the simulation process in order to perform reliable vibroacoustic predictions in the early design phase. In this contribution, uncertainties are quantified using the generalized Polynomial Chaos (gPC) expansion in combination with a Finite Element (FE) model of a vehicle body in white. It is the objective to particularly investigate the applicability of the gPC method in the industrial context with a high number of uncertain parameters and computationally expensive models. A non-intrusive gPC expansion of first and second order is implemented and the approximation of a stochastic response process is compared to a Latin Hypercube sampling based reference solution with special regard to accuracy and computational efficiency. Furthermore, the method is examined for other input distributions and transferred to another FE model in order to verify the applicability of the gPC method in practical applications.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Vibroacoustic Vehicle Body Simulation Including Uncertainties

During the last decades, big steps have been taken towards a realistic simulation of NVH (Noise Vibration Harshness) behavior of vehicles using the Finite Element (FE) method. The quality of these computation models has been substantially increased and the accessible frequency range has been widened. Nevertheless, to perform a reliable prediction of the vehicle vibroacoustic behavior, the consideration of uncertainties is crucial. With this approach there are many challenges on the way to valid and useful simulation models and they can be divided into three areas: the input uncertainties, the propagation of uncertainties through the FE model and finally the statistical output quantities. Each of them must be investigated to choose sufficient methods for a valid and fast prediction of vehicle body vibroacoustics. It can be shown by rough estimation that dimensionality of the corresponding random space for different types of uncertainty is tremendously high.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Calibration of an Automotive Climate Control System

This paper describes a novel approach for modeling an automotive HVAC unit. The model consists of black-box models trained with experimental data from a self-developed measurement setup. It is capable of predicting the temperature and mass flow of the air entering the vehicle cabin at the various air vents. A combination of temperature and velocity sensors is the basis of the measurement setup. A measurement fault analysis is conducted to validate the accuracy of the measurement system. As the data collection is done under fluctuating ambient conditions, a review of the impact of various ambient conditions on the HVAC unit is performed. Correction models that account for the different ambient conditions incorporate these results. Numerous types of black-box models are compared to identify the best-suited type for this approach. Moreover, the accuracy of the model is validated using test drive data.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Model the Fan in Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations

Vehicle thermal management (VTM) simulations constitute an important step in the early development phase of a vehicle. They help in predicting the temperature profiles of critical components over a drive cycle and identify components which are exceeding temperature design limits. Parts with the highest temperatures in a vehicle with an internal combustion engine are concentrated in the engine bay area. As packaging constraints grow tighter, the components in the engine bay are packed closer together. This makes the thermal protection in the engine bay even more crucial. The fan influences the airflow into the engine bay and plays an important role in deciding flow distribution in this region. This makes modelling of the fan an important aspect of VTM simulations. The challenge associated with modelling the fan is the accurate simulation of the rotation imparted by the fan to the incoming flow. Currently, two modelling approaches are prevalent in the industry.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Eigenfrequencies and Eigenmodes of Seatbelt Retractors in the Vehicle Environment, Supporting an Acoustically Optimal Retractor Integration by CAE

From an acoustical point of view, the integration of seatbelt retractors in a vehicle is a real challenge that has to be met early in the vehicle development process. The buzz and rattle noise of seat belt retractors is a weak yet disturbing interior noise. Street irregularities excite the wheels and this excitation is transferred via the car body to the mounting location of the retractor. Ultimately, the inertia sensor of the locking mechanism is also excited. This excitation can be amplified by structural resonances and generate a characteristic impact noise. The objective of this paper is to describe a simulation method for an early development phase that predicts the noise-relevant low frequency local modes and consequently the contact of the retractor with the mounting panel of the car body via the finite element method.
Technical Paper

Digital Aeroacoustics Design Method of Climate Systems for Improved Cabin Comfort

Over the past decades, interior noise from wind noise or engine noise have been significantly reduced by leveraging improvements of both the overall vehicle design and of sound package. Consequently, noise sources originating from HVAC systems (Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning), fans or exhaust systems are becoming more relevant for perceived quality and passenger comfort. This study focuses on HVAC systems and discusses a Flow-Induced Noise Detection Contributions (FIND Contributions) numerical method enabling the identification of the flow-induced noise sources inside and around HVAC systems. This methodology is based on the post-processing of unsteady flow results obtained using Lattice Boltzmann based Method (LBM) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations combined with LBM-simulated Acoustic Transfer Functions (ATF) between the position of the sources inside the system and the passenger’s ears.
Journal Article

Bridging the Gap between Open Loop Tests and Statistical Validation for Highly Automated Driving

Highly automated driving (HAD) is under rapid development and will be available for customers within the next years. However the evidence that HAD is at least as safe as human driving has still not been produced. The challenge is to drive hundreds of millions of test kilometers without incidents to show that statistically HAD is significantly safer. One approach is to let a HAD function run in parallel with human drivers in customer cars to utilize a fraction of the billions of kilometers driven every year. To guarantee safety, the function under test (FUT) has access to sensors but its output is not executed, which results in an open loop problem. To overcome this shortcoming, the proposed method consists of four steps to close the loop for the FUT. First, sensor data from real driving scenarios is fused in a world model and enhanced by incorporating future time steps into original measurements.
Technical Paper

Local Gaussian Process Regression in Order to Model Air Charge of Turbocharged Gasoline SI Engines

A local Gaussian process regression approach is presented, which allows to model nonlinearities of internal combustion engines more accurate than global Gaussian process regression. By building smaller models, the prediction of local system behavior improves significantly. In order to predict a value, the algorithm chooses the nearest training points. The number of chosen training points depends on the intensity of estimated nonlinearity. After determining the training points, a model is built, the prediction performed and the model discarded. The approach is demonstrated with a benchmark system and air charge test bed measurements. The measurements are taken from a turbocharged SI gasoline engine with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle. The results show how local Gaussian process regression outmatches global Gaussian process regression concerning model quality and nonlinearities in particular.
Technical Paper

A Virtual Residual Gas Sensor to Enable Modeling of the Air Charge

Air charge calibration of turbocharged SI gasoline engines with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle has to be very accurate and needs a high number of measurements. In particular, the modeling of the transition area from unthrottled, inlet valve controlled resp. throttled mode to turbocharged mode, suffers from small number of measurements (e.g. when applying Design of Experiments (DoE)). This is due to the strong impact of residual gas respectively scavenging dominating locally in this area. In this article, a virtual residual gas sensor in order to enable black-box-modeling of the air charge is presented. The sensor is a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network. Amongst others, the physically calculated air mass is used as training data for the artificial neural network.
Technical Paper

Synergetic 1D-3D-Coupling in Engine Development Part I: Verification of Concept

This paper introduces an innovative approach, named synergetic 1D-3D-Coupling, by using synergy effects of 1D and 3D simulation in order to bring down modeling and simulation efforts. At the same time the methodology sustains the spatial resolution of a 3D model. This goal is reached by reducing the 3D fluid side with its time consuming continuity, momentum, energy and turbulence equations to a simple but precise 1D model. Because of the solid structure staying three dimensional, heat flux direction and spatial resolution have 3D accuracy but short calculation times due to the simple heat diffusion equation to be solved. The 1D model is represented by an automatically generated equation system which is capable of considering transient effects. The energy transfer between 1D fluid model and 3D structure model is realized through a neutral 1D-3D-coupling program and the application of the fluid element specific Nusselt correlations.
Journal Article

Tackling the Complexity of Timing-Relevant Deployment Decisions in Multicore-Based Embedded Automotive Software Systems

Multicore-based ECUs are increasingly used in embedded automotive software systems to allow more demanding automotive applications at moderate cost and energy consumption. Using a high number of parallel processors together with a high number of executed software components results in a practically unmanageable number of deployment alternatives to choose from. However correct deployment is one important step for reaching timing goals and acceptable latency, both also a must to reach safety goals of safety-relevant automotive applications. In this paper we focus at reducing the complexity of deployment decisions during the phases of allocation and scheduling. We tackle this complexity of deployment decisions by a mixed constructive and analytic approach.
Technical Paper

Realistic Driving Experience of New Vehicle Concepts on the BMW Ride Simulator

Nowadays, a continually growing system complexity due to the development of an increasing number of vehicle concepts in a steadily decreasing development time forces the engineering departments in the automotive industry to a deepened system understanding. The virtual design and validation of individual components from subsystems up to full vehicles becomes an even more significant role. As an answer to the challenge of reducing complete hardware prototypes, the virtual competence in NVH, among other methods, has been improved significantly in the last years. At first, the virtual design and validation of objectified phenomena in analogy to hardware tests via standardized test rigs, e.g. four poster test rig, have been conceived and validated with the so called MBS (Multi Body Systems).
Technical Paper

Optimization of Process Parameters for Automotive Paint Application

The quality of the paint application in automotive industry depends on several process parameters. Thus, finding an optimal solution based on experimental configuration is tedious and time consuming. A first step to reduce the effort is to model the application within the framework of a simulation environment. In this study, we present an approach for the systematic variation of design parameters of the paint process to quantify their influence on the quality of the paint application. Using that information the design space is reduced by neglecting the parameters with low impact and later used to predict an optimal set of input parameters for an optimal paint application.
Technical Paper

The New BMW Climatic Testing Complex - The Energy and Environment Test Centre

The Energy and Environment Test Centre (EVZ) is a complex comprising three large climatic wind tunnels, two smaller test chambers, nine soak rooms and support infrastructure. The capabilities of the wind tunnels and chambers are varied, and as a whole give BMW the ability to test at practically all conditions experienced by their vehicles, worldwide. The three wind tunnels have been designed for differing test capabilities, but share the same air circuit design, which has been optimized for energy consumption yet is compact for its large, 8.4 m₂, nozzle cross-section. The wind tunnel test section was designed to meet demanding aerodynamic specifications, including a limit on the axial static pressure gradient and low frequency static pressure fluctuations - design parameters previously reserved for larger aerodynamic or aero-acoustic wind tunnels. The aerodynamic design was achieved, in-part, by use of computational fluid dynamics and a purpose-built model wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

The BMW AVZ Wind Tunnel Center

The new BMW Aerodynamisches Versuchszentrum (AVZ) wind tunnel center includes a full-scale wind tunnel, "The BMW Windkanal" and an aerodynamic laboratory "The BMW AEROLAB." The AVZ facility incorporates numerous new technology features that provide design engineers with new tools for aerodynamic optimization of vehicles. The AVZ features a single-belt rolling road in the AEROLAB and a five-belt rolling road in the Windkanal for underbody aerodynamic simulation. Each of these rolling road types has distinct advantages, and BMW will leverage the advantages of each system. The AEROLAB features two overhead traverses that can be configured to study vehicle drafting, and both static and dynamic passing maneuvers. To accurately simulate "on-road" aerodynamic forces, a novel collector/flow stabilizer was developed that produces a very flat axial static pressure distribution. The flat static pressure distribution represents a significant improvement relative to other open jet wind tunnels.
Technical Paper

Extraction of Static Car Body Stiffness from Dynamic Measurements

This paper describes a practical approach to extract the global static stiffness of a body in white (BIW) from dynamic measurements in free-free conditions. Based on a limited set of measured frequency response functions (FRF), the torsional and bending stiffness values are calculated using an FRF based substructuring approach in combination with inverse force identification. A second approach consists of a modal approach whereby the static car body stiffness is deduced from a full free-free modal identification including residual stiffness estimation at the clamping and load positions. As an extra important result this approach allows for evaluating the modal contribution of the flexible car body modes to the global static stiffness values. The methods have been extensively investigated using finite element modeling data and verified on a series of body in white measurements.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations and Computations of Unsteady Flow Past a Real Car Using a Robust Elliptic Relaxation Closure with a Universal Wall Treatment

In the present work we investigated experimentally and computationally the unsteady flow around a BMW car model including wheels*. This simulation yields mean flow and turbulence fields, enabling the study aerodynamic coefficients (drag and lift coefficients, three-dimensional/spatial wall-pressure distribution) as well as some unsteady flow phenomena in the car wake (analysis of the vortex shedding frequency). Comparisons with experimental findings are presented. The computational approach used is based on solving the complete transient Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (TRANS) equations. Special attention is devoted to turbulence modelling and the near-wall treatment of turbulence. The flow calculations were performed using a robust, eddy-viscosity-based ζ - ƒ turbulence model in the framework of the elliptic relaxation concept and in conjunction with the universal wall treatment, combining integration up to the wall and wall functions.
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Approach for the Chassis Control Development

Handling characteristics, ride comfort and active safety are customer relevant attributes of modern premium vehicles. Electronic control units offer new possibilities to optimize vehicle performance with respect to these goals. The integration of multiple control systems, each with its own focus, leads to a high complexity. BMW and ITK Engineering have created a tool to tackle this challenge. A simulation environment to cover all development stages has been developed. Various levels of complexity are addressed by a scalable simulation model and functionality, which grows step-by-step with increasing requirements. The simulation environment ensures the coherence of the vehicle data and simulation method for development of the electronic systems. The article describes both the process of the electronic control unit (ECU) development and positive impact of an integrated tool on the entire vehicle development process.
Technical Paper

Advanced Lighting Simulation (ALS) for the Evaluation of the BMW System Adaptive Light Control (ALC)

The Advanced Lighting Simulation (ALS) is a development tool for systematically investigating and optimizing the Adaptive Light Control (ALC) system to provide the driver with improved headlamps and light distributions. ALS is based on advanced CA-techniques and modern validation facilities. To improve night time traffic safety the BMW lighting system ALC has been developed and optimized with the help of ALS. ALC improves the headlamp illumination by means of continuous adaptation of the headlamps according to the current driving situation and current environment. BMW has already implemented ALC prototypes in real vehicles to demonstrate the advantages on the real road.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Automotive Defroster and Windshield Flow

The specification of automotive ventilation / defrosting systems has often utilized “trial-and-error” and “prior experience” techniques. But design development and production efficiency has generated a strong interest in using more sophisticated design tools such as computational fluid dynamics. For this purpose a joint experimental and numerical study was undertaken. This comprehensive investigation was divided into two parts. First, the three dimensional defroster flow field was measured using LDA in an actual automobile. Second, LDA and infrared thermography was used to map the flow and temperature fields for a two dimensional jet impinging upon a slanted plate -- a simplified representation of a car defroster geometry.