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Technical Paper

High Performance Processor Architecture for Automotive Large Scaled Integrated Systems within the European Processor Initiative Research Project

2019-04-02
2019-01-0118
Autonomous driving systems and connected mobility are the next big developments for the car manufacturers and their suppliers during the next decade. To achieve the high computing power needs and fulfill new upcoming requirements due to functional safety and security, heterogeneous processor architectures with a mixture of different core architectures and hardware accelerators are necessary. To tackle this new type of hardware complexity and nevertheless stay within monetary constraints, high performance computers, inspired by state of the art data center hardware, could be adapted in order to fulfill automotive quality requirements. The European Processor Initiative (EPI) research project tries to come along with that challenge for next generation semiconductors. To be as close as possible to series development needs for the next upcoming car generations, we present a hybrid semiconductor system-on-chip architecture for automotive.
Technical Paper

Robustness and Reliability Enhancement on Retractor Noise Testing, from Development Considerations to Round Robin

2018-06-13
2018-01-1533
Sensing and acting elements to guarantee the locking functions of seat belt retractors can emit noise when the retractor is subjected to externally applied vibrations. For these elements to function correctly, stiffness, inertia and friction needs to be in tune, leading to a complex motion resistance behavior, which makes it delicate to test for vibration induced noise. Requirements for a noise test are simplicity, robustness, repeatability, and independence of laboratory and test equipment. This paper reports on joint development activities for an alternative test procedure, involving three test laboratories with different equipment. In vehicle observation on parcel shelf mounted retractors, commercially available test equipment, and recent results from multi-axial component tests [1], set the frame for this work. Robustness and reliability of test results is being analyzed by means of sensitivity studies on several test parameters.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Eigenfrequencies and Eigenmodes of Seatbelt Retractors in the Vehicle Environment, Supporting an Acoustically Optimal Retractor Integration by CAE

2018-06-13
2018-01-1543
From an acoustical point of view, the integration of seatbelt retractors in a vehicle is a real challenge that has to be met early in the vehicle development process. The buzz and rattle noise of seat belt retractors is a weak yet disturbing interior noise. Street irregularities excite the wheels and this excitation is transferred via the car body to the mounting location of the retractor. Ultimately, the inertia sensor of the locking mechanism is also excited. This excitation can be amplified by structural resonances and generate a characteristic impact noise. The objective of this paper is to describe a simulation method for an early development phase that predicts the noise-relevant low frequency local modes and consequently the contact of the retractor with the mounting panel of the car body via the finite element method.
Technical Paper

Seat Belt Retractor Noise Test Correlation to 2DOF Shaker Test and Real Vehicle Comfort

2018-06-13
2018-01-1507
Seatbelt retractors as important part of modern safety systems are mounted in any automotive vehicle. Their internal locking mechanism is based on mechanically sensing elements. When the vehicle is run over rough road tracks, the retractor oscillates by spatial mode shapes and its interior components are subjected to vibrations in all 6 degrees of freedoms (DOF). Functional backlash of sensing elements cause impacts with neighbouring parts and leads to weak, but persistent rattle sound, being often rated acoustically annoying in the vehicle. Current acoustic retractor bench tests use exclusively uni-directional excitations. Therefore, a silent 2 DOF test bench is developed to investigate the effect of multi-dimensional excitation on retractor acoustics, combining two slip-tables, each driven independently by a shaker. Tests on this prototype test bench show, that cross coupling between the two perpendicular directions is less than 1%, allowing to control both directions independently.
Technical Paper

Digital Aeroacoustics Design Method of Climate Systems for Improved Cabin Comfort

2017-06-05
2017-01-1787
Over the past decades, interior noise from wind noise or engine noise have been significantly reduced by leveraging improvements of both the overall vehicle design and of sound package. Consequently, noise sources originating from HVAC systems (Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning), fans or exhaust systems are becoming more relevant for perceived quality and passenger comfort. This study focuses on HVAC systems and discusses a Flow-Induced Noise Detection Contributions (FIND Contributions) numerical method enabling the identification of the flow-induced noise sources inside and around HVAC systems. This methodology is based on the post-processing of unsteady flow results obtained using Lattice Boltzmann based Method (LBM) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations combined with LBM-simulated Acoustic Transfer Functions (ATF) between the position of the sources inside the system and the passenger’s ears.
Technical Paper

Title: Development of Reusable Body and Comfort Software Functions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1403
The potential to reduce the cost of embedded software by standardizing the application behavior for Automotive Body and Comfort domain functions is explored in this paper. AUTOSAR, with its layered architecture and a standard definition of the interfaces for Body and Comfort application functions, has simplified the exchangeability of software components. A further step is to standardize the application behavior, by developing standard specifications for common Body and Comfort functions. The corresponding software components can be freely exchanged between different OEM/Tier-1 users, even if developed independently by multiple suppliers. In practice, individual OEM users may need to maintain some distinction in the functionality. A method of categorizing the specifications as ‘common’ and ‘unique’, and to configure them for individual applications is proposed. This allows feature variability by means of relatively simple adapter functions.
Technical Paper

Energy Consumption of Electro-Hydraulic Steering Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-1262
The reduction of fuel consumption in vehicles remains an important target in vehicle development to meet the carbon dioxide emission reduction target. One of the significant consumers of energy in a vehicle is the hydraulic power-assisted steering system (HPS) powered by the engine belt drive. To reduce the energy consumption an electric motor can be used to drive the pump (electro-hydraulic power steering or EHPS). In this work a simulation model was developed and validated to model the energy consumption of the whole steering system. This includes an advanced friction model for the steering rack, a physically modeled steering valve, the hydraulic pump and the electric motor with the control unit. The model is used to investigate the influence of various parameters on the energy consumption for different road situations. The results identified the important parameters influencing the power consumption and showed the potential to reduce the power consumption of the system.
Technical Paper

Sizing in Conceptual Design at BMW

2004-03-08
2004-01-1657
In the early stages of conceptual design the available geometric data are very coarse and the lifespan of a design idea is very short. The structural evaluation and improvement of a design has to take both facts into account. Its focus is on the total vehicle and its performance. This can be estimated by a modeling technique, which is adequate for the lack of geometric details. Static and dynamic global stiffness as well as some aspects of crash and NVH have to be considered. Optimization will lead to the proper sizing and some indication of the potential of the structure. In order to maintain high quality standards this approach has to be supported by specialized CAE tools and extensive rules on modeling techniques and analysis procedures.
Technical Paper

Virtual testing driven development process for side impact safety

2001-06-04
2001-06-0251
A new simulation tool was established and approved by TRW as part of the continuous improvement of the development process. This tool allows the OEM and the system supplier to keep high quality even with further reduced development times. The introduction of the tool in a side air-bag development program makes it possible to ensure high development confidence with a reduced number of vehicle crash tests and late availability of interior component parts.
Technical Paper

Tire and Car Contribution and Interaction to Low Frequency Interior Noise

2001-04-30
2001-01-1528
A joint study was conducted between BMW and Goodyear with the objective of analysing the cause and identifying methods to reduce the structure-borne interior noise in a vehicle driving on rough road surfaces. A vibro-acoustic characterization of the car was performed by measuring the car vibro-acoustic transfer functions and by using a transfer path analysis technique to identify the main suspension parts affecting the interior noise at target frequencies. The vibration transmissibility characteristics of the tire were measured and also simulated by Finite Element in [1-200Hz] frequency range. The vibro-acoustic interaction between the tire and car sub-systems was examined. A Finite Element sensitivity analysis was used to define and build new prototype tires. A 3dB(A) interior noise improvement was obtained with these new tires at target frequencies.
Technical Paper

Noise analysis and modeling with neural networks and genetic algorithms

2000-06-12
2000-05-0291
The aim of the project is to reliably identify the set of constructive features responsible for the highest noise levels in the interior of motor vehicles. A simulation environment based on artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks and genetic algorithms has been implemented. We used a system identification approach in order to approximate the functional relationship between the target noise series and the sets of constructive parameters corresponding to the cars. The noise levels were measured with a microphone positioned on the driver''s chair, and corresponded to a variation of the engine rotation of 600-900 rot/min. The database includes 45 different cars, each described by vectors of 67 constructive features.
Technical Paper

OSEKtime: A Dependable Real-Time Fault-Tolerant Operating System and Communication Layer as an Enabling Technology for By-Wire Applications

2000-03-06
2000-01-1051
The new generation of drive-by-wire systems currently under development has demanding requirements on the electronic architecture. Functions such as brake-by-wire or steer-by-wire require continued operation even in the presence of component failures. The electronic architecture must therefore provide fault-tolerance and real-time response. This in turn requires the operating system and the communication layer to be predictable, dependable and composable. It is well known that this properties are best supported by a time-triggered approach. A consortium consisting of German and French car manufacturers and suppliers, which aims at becoming a working group within the OSEK/VDX initiative, the OSEKtime consortium, is currently defining a specification for a time-triggered operating system and a fault-tolerant communication layer.1 The operating system and the communication layer are based on applicable interfaces of the OSEK/VDX standard.
Technical Paper

Communication and Information Systems - A Comparison of Ideas, Concepts and Products

2000-03-06
2000-01-0810
How can car manufacturers, which are primary mechanical engineers, become software specialists? This is a question of prime importance for car electronics in the future. Modern vehicles offer a large number of electronic and software based functions to achieve a high level of safety, fuel economy, comfort, entertainment and security which are developed under pressure of regulations, of consumers needs and of competitive time to market aspects. This contribution draws a picture, what could be important in future for in car communication and information system in terms of development process, HW & SW architectures, partnerships in automotive industry and security of industrial properties. For this purpose the automotive development is reviewed and actual examples of system designs are given.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Engine Exhaust Acoustics

1999-05-17
1999-01-1665
Exhaust acoustics simulation is an important part of the exhaust system process. Especially important is the trend towards a coupled approach to performance and acoustics design. The present paper describes a new simulation tool developed for such coupled simulations. This tool is based on a one-dimensional fluid dynamics solution of the flow in the engine manifolds and exhaust and intake elements. To represent the often complex geometries of mufflers, an easy-to-use graphical pre-processor is provided, with which the user builds a model representation of mufflers using a library of basic elements. A comparison made to two engines equipped with exhaust silencers, shows that the predictions give good results.
Technical Paper

Structural Modelling of Car Panels Using Holographic Modal Analysis

1999-05-17
1999-01-1849
In order to optimise the vibro-acoustic behaviour of panel-like structures in a more systematic way, accurate structural models are needed. However, at the frequencies of relevance to the vibro-acoustic problem, the mode shapes are very complex, requiring a high spatial resolution in the measurement procedure. The large number of required transducers and their mass loading effects limit the applicability of accelerometer testing. In recent years, optical measuring methods have been proposed. Direct electronic (ESPI) imaging, using strobed continuous laser illumination, or more recently, pulsed laser illumination, have lately created the possibility to bring the holographic testing approach to the level of industrial applicability for modal analysis procedures. The present paper discusses the various critical elements of a holographic ESPI modal testing system.
Technical Paper

Life-Cycle Optimization of Car Components

1995-02-01
950207
The environmental impact of the automobile and its components is of growing importance not only in public debates but also in the complex decision making process regarding future car concepts. To calculate the environmental compatibility of car components BMW has developed various quantifying instruments and a holistic Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA) approach. The development phase significantly affects the entire life-cycle of a product. Suitable design criteria, recycling requirements and in-house standards have therefore been developed and established. One of the most important objectives in optimizing the environmental compatibility of the automobile is the realization of intelligent lightweight concepts. This means one has to find the most appropriate solution in terms of ecology and economy. Due to modern development processes car manufacturers and their suppliers have to intensify their cooperation also in this area.
Technical Paper

New Acoustic Test Facilities of BMW

1985-05-15
850992
BMW has introduced new test stands for noise measurements on passenger cars and motorcycles. Information is given on room conditions, machinery equipment, sound levels, frequency ranges and types of measurement. The semi-anechoic room is designed for measuring the sound distribution emitted by a single vehicle. Road influence is simulated by a reflecting floor and a roller-dynamometer. The free field sound distribution in terms of distance and direction is measured in the anechoic room. This room has high-precision installations for sound source identification and noise mapping. The reverberation room serves to measure sound power emitted by the test object. Its second purpose is to subject the bodywork to a high-power external sound source and to measure the sound-deadening effect of the passenger compartment. In conclusion, the presentation provides reports on the initial experience with these test facilities.
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