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Technical Paper

High Performance Processor Architecture for Automotive Large Scaled Integrated Systems within the European Processor Initiative Research Project

2019-04-02
2019-01-0118
Autonomous driving systems and connected mobility are the next big developments for the car manufacturers and their suppliers during the next decade. To achieve the high computing power needs and fulfill new upcoming requirements due to functional safety and security, heterogeneous processor architectures with a mixture of different core architectures and hardware accelerators are necessary. To tackle this new type of hardware complexity and nevertheless stay within monetary constraints, high performance computers, inspired by state of the art data center hardware, could be adapted in order to fulfill automotive quality requirements. The European Processor Initiative (EPI) research project tries to come along with that challenge for next generation semiconductors. To be as close as possible to series development needs for the next upcoming car generations, we present a hybrid semiconductor system-on-chip architecture for automotive.
Technical Paper

A Method for Identifying Most Significant Vehicle Parameters for Controller Performance of Autonomous Driving Functions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0446
In this paper a method for the identification of most significant vehicle parameters influencing the behavior of a lateral control system of autonomous car is presented. Requirements for the design stage of the controller need to consider many uncertainties in the plant. While most vehicle properties can be compensated by an appropriate tuning of the control parameters, other vehicle properties can change significantly during usage. The control system is evaluated based on performance measures. Analyzed parameters comprise functional tire characteristics, mass of the vehicle and position of its center of gravity. Since the parameters are correlated, but Sobol’ sensitivity analysis assumes decorrelated inputs, random variation yields no reasonable results. Furthermore, the variation of each parameter or set of parameters is not applicable since the numbers of required simulations is increased significantly according to input dimension.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Eigenfrequencies and Eigenmodes of Seatbelt Retractors in the Vehicle Environment, Supporting an Acoustically Optimal Retractor Integration by CAE

2018-06-13
2018-01-1543
From an acoustical point of view, the integration of seatbelt retractors in a vehicle is a real challenge that has to be met early in the vehicle development process. The buzz and rattle noise of seat belt retractors is a weak yet disturbing interior noise. Street irregularities excite the wheels and this excitation is transferred via the car body to the mounting location of the retractor. Ultimately, the inertia sensor of the locking mechanism is also excited. This excitation can be amplified by structural resonances and generate a characteristic impact noise. The objective of this paper is to describe a simulation method for an early development phase that predicts the noise-relevant low frequency local modes and consequently the contact of the retractor with the mounting panel of the car body via the finite element method.
Journal Article

Bridging the Gap between Open Loop Tests and Statistical Validation for Highly Automated Driving

2017-03-28
2017-01-1403
Highly automated driving (HAD) is under rapid development and will be available for customers within the next years. However the evidence that HAD is at least as safe as human driving has still not been produced. The challenge is to drive hundreds of millions of test kilometers without incidents to show that statistically HAD is significantly safer. One approach is to let a HAD function run in parallel with human drivers in customer cars to utilize a fraction of the billions of kilometers driven every year. To guarantee safety, the function under test (FUT) has access to sensors but its output is not executed, which results in an open loop problem. To overcome this shortcoming, the proposed method consists of four steps to close the loop for the FUT. First, sensor data from real driving scenarios is fused in a world model and enhanced by incorporating future time steps into original measurements.
Technical Paper

A Virtual Residual Gas Sensor to Enable Modeling of the Air Charge

2016-04-05
2016-01-0626
Air charge calibration of turbocharged SI gasoline engines with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle has to be very accurate and needs a high number of measurements. In particular, the modeling of the transition area from unthrottled, inlet valve controlled resp. throttled mode to turbocharged mode, suffers from small number of measurements (e.g. when applying Design of Experiments (DoE)). This is due to the strong impact of residual gas respectively scavenging dominating locally in this area. In this article, a virtual residual gas sensor in order to enable black-box-modeling of the air charge is presented. The sensor is a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network. Amongst others, the physically calculated air mass is used as training data for the artificial neural network.
Technical Paper

Implementing Mixed Criticality Software Integration on Multicore - A Cost Model and the Lessons Learned

2015-04-14
2015-01-0266
The German funded project ARAMiS included work on several demonstrators one of which was a multicore approach on large scale software integration (LSSI) for the automotive domain. Here BMW and Audi intentionally implemented two different integration platforms to gain both experience and real life data on a Hypervisor based concept on one side as well as using only native AUTOSAR-based methods on the other side for later comparison. The idea was to obtain figures on the added overhead both for multicore as well as safety, based on practical work and close-to-production implementations. During implementation and evaluation on one hand there were a lot of valuable lessons learned about multicore in conjunction with safety. On the other hand valuable information was gathered to make it finally possible to set up a cost model for estimation of potential overhead generated by different integration approaches for safety related software functions.
Journal Article

Timing Evaluation in E/E Architecture Design at BMW

2014-04-01
2014-01-0317
Timing evaluation methods help to design a robust and extendible E/E architecture (electric/electronic). BMW has introduced the systematic application of such methods in the E/E design process within the last three years. Meanwhile, most of the architectural changes are now verified by a tool-based, automatic real-time analysis. This has increased the accuracy of the network planning and productivity of the BMW network department. In this paper, we give an overview of the actual status of timing evaluations in BMW's E/E architecture design. We discuss acceptance criteria, analysis metrics, and design rules, as far as these are related to timing. We look specifically at automation options, as these improve the productivity further. We will see that timing analysis has matured and should be mandatory for application in mass production E/E architecture development. At the same time, there is room for future improvements.
Journal Article

Validation and Sensitivity Studies for SAE J2601, the Light Duty Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Standard

2014-04-01
2014-01-1990
The worldwide automotive industry is currently preparing for a market introduction of hydrogen-fueled powertrains. These powertrains in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) offer many advantages: high efficiency, zero tailpipe emissions, reduced greenhouse gas footprint, and use of domestic and renewable energy sources. To realize these benefits, hydrogen vehicles must be competitive with conventional vehicles with regards to fueling time and vehicle range. A key to maximizing the vehicle's driving range is to ensure that the fueling process achieves a complete fill to the rated Compressed Hydrogen Storage System (CHSS) capacity. An optimal process will safely transfer the maximum amount of hydrogen to the vehicle in the shortest amount of time, while staying within the prescribed pressure, temperature, and density limits. The SAE J2601 light duty vehicle fueling standard has been developed to meet these performance objectives under all practical conditions.
Technical Paper

Li-Ion Battery SOC Estimation Using Non-Linear Estimation Strategies Based on Equivalent Circuit Models

2014-04-01
2014-01-1849
Due to their high energy density, power density, and durability, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are rapidly becoming the most popular energy storage method for electric vehicles. Difficulty arises in accurately estimating the amount of left capacity in the battery during operation time, commonly known as battery state of charge (SOC). This paper presents a comparative study between six different Equivalent Circuit Li-ion battery models and two different state of charge (SOC) estimation strategies. The Battery models cover the state-of-the-art of Equivalent Circuit models discussed in literature. The Li-ion battery SOC is estimated using non-linear estimation strategies i.e. Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the Smooth Variable Structure Filter (SVSF). The models and the state of charge estimation strategies are compared against simulation data obtained from AVL CRUISE software.
Journal Article

Tackling the Complexity of Timing-Relevant Deployment Decisions in Multicore-Based Embedded Automotive Software Systems

2013-04-08
2013-01-1224
Multicore-based ECUs are increasingly used in embedded automotive software systems to allow more demanding automotive applications at moderate cost and energy consumption. Using a high number of parallel processors together with a high number of executed software components results in a practically unmanageable number of deployment alternatives to choose from. However correct deployment is one important step for reaching timing goals and acceptable latency, both also a must to reach safety goals of safety-relevant automotive applications. In this paper we focus at reducing the complexity of deployment decisions during the phases of allocation and scheduling. We tackle this complexity of deployment decisions by a mixed constructive and analytic approach.
Journal Article

Achieving a Scalable E/E-Architecture Using AUTOSAR and Virtualization

2013-04-08
2013-01-1399
Today's automotive software integration is a static process. Hardware and software form a fixed package and thus hinder the integration of new electric and electronic features once the specification has been completed. Usually software components assigned to an ECU cannot be easily transferred to other devices after they have been deployed. The main reasons are high system configuration and integration complexity, although shifting functions from one to another ECU is a feature which is generally supported by AUTOSAR. The concept of a Virtual Functional Bus allows a strict separation between applications and infrastructure and avoids source code modifications. But still further tooling is needed to reconfigure the AUTOSAR Basic Software (BSW). Other challenges for AUTOSAR are mixed integrity, versioning and multi-core support. The upcoming BMW E/E-domain oriented architecture will require all these features to be scalable across all vehicle model ranges.
Technical Paper

Title: Development of Reusable Body and Comfort Software Functions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1403
The potential to reduce the cost of embedded software by standardizing the application behavior for Automotive Body and Comfort domain functions is explored in this paper. AUTOSAR, with its layered architecture and a standard definition of the interfaces for Body and Comfort application functions, has simplified the exchangeability of software components. A further step is to standardize the application behavior, by developing standard specifications for common Body and Comfort functions. The corresponding software components can be freely exchanged between different OEM/Tier-1 users, even if developed independently by multiple suppliers. In practice, individual OEM users may need to maintain some distinction in the functionality. A method of categorizing the specifications as ‘common’ and ‘unique’, and to configure them for individual applications is proposed. This allows feature variability by means of relatively simple adapter functions.
Video

BMW Technology/Strategy Regarding EV

2011-11-04
The BMW Group has introduced electric cars to the market with the MINI E already in 2009. The next step will be the launch of the BMW ActiveE in 2011, followed by the revolutionary Mega City Vehicle in 2013. The presentation will explain the BMW Group strategy for implementing sustainable mobility. A focus will be emobility, the use of carbon fiber and the holistic sustainability approach of BMW Group?s project i. Reference will be made to the research results of the MINI E projects in the US and in Europe. Presenter Andreas Klugescheid, BMW AG
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Approach for the Chassis Control Development

2006-04-03
2006-01-1280
Handling characteristics, ride comfort and active safety are customer relevant attributes of modern premium vehicles. Electronic control units offer new possibilities to optimize vehicle performance with respect to these goals. The integration of multiple control systems, each with its own focus, leads to a high complexity. BMW and ITK Engineering have created a tool to tackle this challenge. A simulation environment to cover all development stages has been developed. Various levels of complexity are addressed by a scalable simulation model and functionality, which grows step-by-step with increasing requirements. The simulation environment ensures the coherence of the vehicle data and simulation method for development of the electronic systems. The article describes both the process of the electronic control unit (ECU) development and positive impact of an integrated tool on the entire vehicle development process.
Technical Paper

Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems Developed and Manufactured for the First Time for Customer Cars

2006-04-03
2006-01-0432
There is a common understanding that hydrogen has a great potential to be the fuel of the future. In addition to the challenge of developing appropriate hydrogen propulsion systems the development of hydrogen storage systems is the second big issue. Due to its high potential in cost and weight and specific storage capacity, the BMW Group is focusing on the development of liquid hydrogen storage systems. In the next hydrogen 7-Series the BMW Group is about to make for the first time the step from demonstration fleets to cars used by external users with a liquid hydrogen storage system. To realize this significant goal, special focus has to be put on high safety standards so that hydrogen can be considered as safe as common types of fuel, and on the every day reliability of the storage system. Moreover, the development of strong partnerships with suppliers is a key factor to realize the design and identify appropriate manufacturing processes.
Technical Paper

AutoMoDe - Notations, Methods, and Tools for Model-Based Development of Automotive Software

2005-04-11
2005-01-1281
This paper describes the first results from the AutoMoDe project (Automotive Model-based Development), where an integrated methodology for model-based development of automotive control software is being developed. The results presented include a number of problem-oriented graphical notations, based on a formally defined operational model, which are associated with system views for various degrees of abstraction. It is shown how the approach can be used for partitioning comprehensive system designs for subsequent implementation-related tasks. Recent experiences from a case study of an engine management system, specific issues related to reengineering, and the current status of CASE-tool support are also presented.
Technical Paper

Management Controller for an Electric Vehicle Implemented with the Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder

2003-03-03
2003-01-0852
Sophisticated electronic control unit (ECU) systems are required to achieve optimal performance in electric vehicles, especially in the areas of charge management and climate control. Some of the important control parameters for these systems include charge control and state of charge determination (SOC). Motorola's Automotive Group recently developed an electronic control unit (ECU) that controls and manages the heart of electric vehicles, the battery.
Technical Paper

Comfort and Convenience Features in Luxury Cars

2002-10-21
2002-21-0052
This paper presents new comfort and convenience features in the luxury segment and focuses especially on Comfort Access and iDrive. The Comfort Access System offers the customer the possibility of unlocking the vehicle without active use of a key, of starting the engine and at the end of the journey of locking the car again. The aim of the iDrive concept was to enable intuitive operation of the various functions with simultaneously improved ergonomics. Both, a monitor and a controller with its variable haptic are the concept’s innovation. In addition, this paper also discusses future ECU (Electronic Control Unit) networks for body electronics. The focus is on package-driven ECU network architecture, having many functions developed by different suppliers on a single ECU.
Technical Paper

Virtual testing driven development process for side impact safety

2001-06-04
2001-06-0251
A new simulation tool was established and approved by TRW as part of the continuous improvement of the development process. This tool allows the OEM and the system supplier to keep high quality even with further reduced development times. The introduction of the tool in a side air-bag development program makes it possible to ensure high development confidence with a reduced number of vehicle crash tests and late availability of interior component parts.
Technical Paper

2D Mapping and Quantification of the In-Cylinder Air/Fuel-Ratio in a GDI Engine by Means of LIF and Comparison to Simultaneous Results from 1D Raman Measurements

2001-05-07
2001-01-1977
The optimization of the vaporization and mixture formation process is of great importance for the development of modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, because it influences the subsequent processes of the ignition, combustion and pollutant formation significantly. In consequence, the subject of this work was the development of a measurement technique based on the laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIF), which allows the two dimensional visualization and quantification of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio. A tracer concept consisting of benzene and triethylamine dissolved in a non-fluorescent base fuel has been used. The calibration of the equivalence ratio proportional LIF-signal was performed directly inside the engine, at a well known mixture composition, immediately before the direct injection measurements were started.
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