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Journal Article

Mechanical Property Evaluation of Permanent-Mould Cast AM-SC1™ Mg-Alloy

AM-SC1™ is a high temperature Mg alloy that was originally developed as a sand casting alloy for automotive powertrain applications. The alloy has been selected as the engine block material for both the AVL Genios LE and the USCAR lightweight magnesium engine projects. The present work assesses the potential of this alloy for permanent-mould die cast applications. Thermo-physical and mechanical properties of AM-SC1 were determined for material derived from a permanent-mould die casting process. The mechanical properties determined included: tensile, creep, bolt load retention/relaxation and both low and high cycle fatigue. To better assess the creep performance, a comparative analysis of the normalized creep properties was carried out using the Mukherjee-Dorn parameter, which confirmed the high viscoplastic performance of AM-SC1 compared with common creep resistant high pressure die cast (HPDC) Mg-alloys.
Technical Paper

The European Union Mg-Engine Project - Generation of Material Property Data for Four Die Cast Mg-Alloys

A specific objective of the European Mg-Engine project is to qualify at least two die cast Mg alloys with improved high temperature properties, in addition to satisfactory corrosion resistance, castability and costs. This paper discusses the selection criteria for high temperature alloys leading to four candidate alloys, AJ52A, AJ62A, AE44 and AE35. Tensile-, creep- and fatigue testing of standard die cast test specimens at different temperatures and conditions have led to a very large amount of material property data. Numerous examples are given to underline the potential for these alloys in high temperature automotive applications. The subsequent use of the basic property data in material models for design of automotive components is illustrated.
Technical Paper

Light Weight Engine Construction through Extended and Sustainable Use of Mg-Alloys

Eight partners from Europe and one from North America have joined efforts in a EU-supported project to find new ways for sustainable production of Mg-based engine blocks for cars. The ultimate aim of the work is to reduce vehicle weight, thereby reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from operation of the vehicle. Four new magnesium alloys are considered in the project and an engine block has been series cast - 20 each in two alloys. An extensive mechanical testing program has been initiated to identify in particular the high temperature limits of the four alloys and a significant experimental study of proper bolt materials for joining is being done in parallel. Engine redesign and life cycle analysis has also been completed to secure the future sustainable exploitation of the project results. This paper presents an overview of the work and results obtained until now - 3 months before the ending date of the project.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Heads for High Power Gasoline Engines - Thermomechanical Fatigue Life Prediction

Increasing demands on engine efficiency and specific power have resulted in progressively higher loadings on internal components of combustion engines. Therefore the durability assessment of such components is increasingly in demand, triggered by both reliability and economic requirements. Within this context the TMF cylinder head simulation process established at BMW is presented in the following article. The numerical model is able to account for thermo-mechanical loading histories. These lead to a transient evolution of the material characteristics during the lifetime due to aging in aluminum alloys. Therefore a viscoplastic constitutive model is coupled with an aging model to handle the change in precipitation structure and the effect on the material properties, especially for non heat-treated secondary aluminum alloys. The local damage evolution is modeled based on the growth of micro cracks.
Technical Paper

AJ (Mg-Al-Sr) Alloy Mechanical Properties: From Fatigue to Crack Propagation

In addition to the creep properties, the fatigue properties are essential for the design of a power-train component in Mg which is operated at elevated temperatures. In case of the new BMW I6 composite Mg/Al crankcase using the AJ alloy system, material testing focused on both subjects. The basic mechanical properties were determined from separately die cast samples and also from samples machined out from high-pressure die cast components. Tensile, high cycle fatigue properties, low cycle fatigue and crack propagation properties were established and analyzed within the technical context for power-train applications reflected in the temperature and load levels. The aspects of mean stress influence, notch sensitivity and crack propagation are evaluated to estimate the performances of the AJ62A alloy system.
Technical Paper

AJ (Mg-Al-Sr) Alloy System Used for New Engine Block

AJ alloy is used with a new Aluminum-Magnesium Composite Design, which is an innovative approach to lightweight crankcase technology. The component is manufactured using high pressure die cast process. A wide range of chemical compositions was used to develop a good understanding of the behavior of this alloy system (castability, thermophysical, mechanical, microstructure). The basic mechanical properties were determined from separately die cast samples and also from samples machined out from high pressure die cast components. Tensile, creep, bolt load retention/relaxation and high cycle fatigue properties were established and analyzed using multivariate analysis and statistical approach. This methodology was used to select the optimal chemical composition to match the requirements. The sensitivity of the alloy to heat exposure was investigated for both mechanical properties and microstructure.