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Technical Paper

Frequency and Temperature Dependent Stiffness and Damping Properties of Reduced Viscoelastic Structures Using Component Mode Synthesis (CMS)

2018-06-13
2018-01-1498
Model Order Reduction (MOR) methods such as Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) have been used in order to simulate large linear dynamic systems for many years and have reached a considerable level of saturation. These reduction methods have many advantages such as minimizing computational costs but also have restrictions. One of their disadvantages is that material damping characteristics can only be defined in form of Rayleigh damping. Another disadvantage is that the reduced order model can only represent one state of the structure determined in the generation process of the reduced matrices. In this paper we present a way to consider material damping in reduced matrices that contain one or more materials having different damping characteristics without the disadvantages of using Rayleigh damping.
Technical Paper

Conceptualization and Implementation of a Scalable Powertrain, Modular Energy Storage and an Alternative Cooling System on a Student Concept Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1185
The Deep Orange program immerses automotive engineering students into the world of an OEM as part of their 2-year graduate education. In support of developing the program’s seventh vehicle concept, the students studied the sponsoring brand essence, conducted market research, and made a heuristic assessment of competitor vehicles. The upfront research lead to the definition of target customers and setting vehicle level targets that were broken down into requirements to develop various vehicle sub-systems. The powertrain team was challenged to develop a scalable propulsion concept enabled by a common vehicle architecture that allowed future customers to select (at the point of purchase) among various levels of electrification best suiting their needs and personal desires. Four different configurations were identified and developed: all-electric, two plug-in hybrid electric configurations, and an internal combustion engine only.
Technical Paper

Designing Sound for Quiet Cars

2016-06-15
2016-01-1839
The quiet nature of hybrid and electric vehicles has triggered developments in research, vehicle manufacturing and legal requirements. Currently, three countries require fitting an Approaching Vehicle Alerting System (AVAS) to every new car capable of driving without a combustion engine. Various other geographical areas and groups are in the process of specifying new legal requirements. In this paper, the design challenges in the on-going process of designing the sound for quiet cars are discussed. A proposal is issued on how to achieve the optimum combination of safety, environmental noise, subjective sound character and technical realisation in an iterative sound design process. The proposed sound consists of two layers: the first layer contains tonal components with their pitch rising along with vehicle speed in order to ensure recognisability and an indication of speed.
Journal Article

Maneuver-Based Analysis of Starting-Systems and Starting-Strategies for the Internal Combustion Engine in Full Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2014-10-13
2014-01-2901
The requirement of the start of the internal combustion engine (ICE) not only at vehicle standstill is new for full hybrid electric vehicles in comparison to conventional vehicles. However, the customer will not accept any deterioration with respect to dynamics and comfort. ICE-starting-systems and -strategies have to be designed to meet those demands. Within this research, a method was developed which allows a reproducible maneuver-based analysis of ICE-starts. In the first step, a maneuver catalogue including a customer-oriented maneuver program with appropriate analysis criteria was defined. Afterwards, the maneuvers were implemented and verified in a special test bench environment. Based on the method, two sample hybrid vehicles were benchmarked according to the maneuver catalogue. The benchmarking results demonstrate important dependencies between the criteria-based assessment of ICE-starts and the embedded ICE-starting-system and -strategy.
Journal Article

The Development of Turbine Volute Surface Temperature Models for 3D CFD Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations: Part 3: Exhaust Radial Turbine Volute Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0648
Modern exhaust systems contain not only a piping network to transport hot gas from the engine to the atmosphere, but also functional components such as the catalytic converter and turbocharger. The turbocharger is common place in the automotive industry due to their capability to increase the specific power output of reciprocating engines. As the exhaust system is a main heat source for the under body of the vehicle and the turbocharger is located within the engine bay, it is imperative that accurate surface temperatures are achieved. A study by K. Haehndel [1] implemented a 1D fluid stream as a replacement to solving 3D fluid dynamics of the internal exhaust flow. To incorporate the 3D effects of internal fluid flow, augmented Nusselt correlations were used to produce heat transfer coefficients. It was found that the developed correlations for the exhaust system did not adequately represent the heat transfer of the turbocharger.
Journal Article

The Development of Exhaust Surface Temperature Models for 3D CFD Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations Part 1 - General Exhaust Configurations

2013-04-08
2013-01-0879
The thermal prediction of a vehicle under-body environment is of high importance in the design, optimization and management of vehicle power systems. Within the pre-development phase of a vehicle's production process, it is important to understand and determine regions of high thermally induced stress within critical under-body components. Therefore allowing engineers to modify the design or alter component material characteristics before the manufacture of hardware. As the exhaust system is one of the primary heat sources in a vehicle's under-body environment, it is vital to predict the thermal fluctuation of surface temperatures along corresponding exhaust components in order to achieve the correct thermal representation of the overall under-body heat transfer. This paper explores a new method for achieving higher accuracy exhaust surface temperature predictions.
Video

BMW i3 - A Battery Electric Vehicle...Right from the Beginning

2012-03-29
What are the requirements of customers in an urban environment? What will sustainable mobility look like in the future? This presentation gives an overview of the integrated approach used by BMW to develop the BMW i3 - a purpose-built battery electric vehicle. Very low driving resistances for such a vehicle concept enable the delivery of both impressive range and driving excitement. A small optional auxiliary power unit offers range security for unexpected situations and opens up BEVs to customers who are willing to buy a BEV but are still hesitant due to range anxiety. Additional electric vehicles sold to the formerly range anxious will create additional electric miles. Presenter Franz Storkenmaier, BMW Group
Technical Paper

The Impact of Hybrid-Electric Powertrains on Chassis Systems and Vehicle Dynamics

2009-04-20
2009-01-0442
While hybrid-electric powertrain features such as regenerative braking and electric driving can improve the fuel economy of a vehicle significantly, these features may also have a considerable impact on driving dynamics. That is why extra effort is necessary to ensure safety and comfort that customers usually expect from a conventional vehicle. The purpose of this paper is to initiate a discussion regarding different drivetrain concepts, necessary changes in chassis systems, and the impact on vehicle dynamics. To provide input to this essential discussion, braking and steering systems, as well as suspension design, are analyzed regarding their fit with hybrid systems. It is shown how an integration of hybrid technology and chassis systems benefits vehicle dynamics and why “by-wire” technology is a key enabler for safe and comfortable hybrid-electric vehicles.
Journal Article

Implementation and Validation of the G-equation Model Coupled with Flamelet Libraries for Simulating Premixed Combustion in I.C. Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0709
The G-equation model was implemented in the commercial code ANSYS CFX and validated against experimental data in order to successfully simulate turbulent premixed combustion in internal combustion engines. The model is based on the level-set approach. Two transport equations are solved respectively for the G-scalar mean value, representing the local distance function from the time-averaged mean flame front, and its variance, correlated to the turbulent flame brush thickness. The model closure for tracking the flame front is based on an algebraic expression for the turbulent burning velocity. The composition of the reacted mixture is evaluated by coupling the code with flamelet libraries generated with the ANSYS CFX-RIF package by means of a reaction progress variable computed as a function of the G-related quantities.
Technical Paper

BMW High Precision Fuel Injectionin Conjunction with Twin-Turbo Technology: a Combination for Maximum Dynamic and High Fuel Efficiency

2007-04-16
2007-01-1560
The new inline six cylinder Twin-Turbo gasoline engine forms the pinnacle of BMW's wide range of straight-six power units, developing maximum output of 300hp and a peak torque of 300 lb-ft with a displacement of 3.0 litre. Using two turbochargers in combination with the new BMW High Precision Fuel Injection leads to a responsive build-up of torque and to an impressive development of power over a wide engine speed range. This paper gives a detailed overview of the turbocharger-and the injection system and describes the effect of both systems on power and torque, as well as on fuel consumption and emission. The big advantage of using two small turbochargers is their low moment of inertia, even the slightest movement of the accelerator pedal by the driver's foot serving to immediately build up superior pressure and power. This puts an end to the turbo “gap” previously typical of a turbocharged power unit.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Modeling of Heat Transfer in the SI Engine Exhaust System During Warm-Up

2007-04-16
2007-01-1092
In order to meet the severe emission restrictions imposed by SULEV and EURO V standards the catalytic converter must reach light-off temperature during the first 20 seconds after engine cold start. Thermal losses in the exhaust manifold are driven by the heat transfer of the pulsating and turbulent exhaust flow and affect significantly the warm-up time of the catalyst. In the present paper an investigation concerning the gas-side heat transfer in the exhaust system of a spark ignited (SI) combustion engine with retarded ignition timing and secondary air injection into the exhaust port is reported. Based on this analysis, the warm-up simulation of a one-dimensional flow simulation tool is improved for an evaluation of different exhaust system configurations.
Technical Paper

Enhanced VALVETRONIC Technology for Meeting SULEV Emission Requirements

2006-04-03
2006-01-0849
BMW VALVETRONIC technology is able to maintain the most important measures to reduce emissions. The further optimized charge movement created by VALVETRONIC stabilizes the combustion in the catalyst heating mode with extremely retarded ignition timing. When the engine is warm the high residual gas tolerance ensures very low Engine-Out NOx emissions and at the same time a low level of hydrocarbons. The atomization of fuel droplets due to high flow velocity in the valve gap area leads to improved mixture formation and reduced wall wetting. Engine-Out HC emissions in a cold engine are therefore reduced. Combined, the emission measures achieve robust and efficient emission control. In combination with additional after-treatment like secondary air system and catalysts using high cell density VALVETRONIC engines form an excellent base for SULEV emission regulations without neglecting the typical BMW claim of efficient dynamics.
Technical Paper

Potentials of the Spray-Guided BMW DI Combustion System

2006-04-03
2006-01-1265
The spray-guided BMW DI combustion system eliminates the most important disadvantages of the wall-and air-guided 1st generation DI combustion systems. With its central injector position, the spray-guided system provides a stratified mixture at the spark plug and reduces wall wetting significantly. The low spray penetration and high spray stability of the outward-opening piezo injector allow an extension of the stratified engine map to higher engine load and speed. The piezo drive permits an extremely fast opening of the injector needle, thus enabling multiple injections with very short delay times and high flexibility for the calibration strategy to supply a very efficient combustion with low unburnt hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. Compared to a conventional throttled SI engine, the spray-guided system shows a fuel consumption potential of about 20% in the NEDC.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Heads for High Power Gasoline Engines - Thermomechanical Fatigue Life Prediction

2006-04-03
2006-01-0541
Increasing demands on engine efficiency and specific power have resulted in progressively higher loadings on internal components of combustion engines. Therefore the durability assessment of such components is increasingly in demand, triggered by both reliability and economic requirements. Within this context the TMF cylinder head simulation process established at BMW is presented in the following article. The numerical model is able to account for thermo-mechanical loading histories. These lead to a transient evolution of the material characteristics during the lifetime due to aging in aluminum alloys. Therefore a viscoplastic constitutive model is coupled with an aging model to handle the change in precipitation structure and the effect on the material properties, especially for non heat-treated secondary aluminum alloys. The local damage evolution is modeled based on the growth of micro cracks.
Technical Paper

A Systematic Analysis of CO2-Reduction by an Optimized Heat Supply during Vehicle Warm-up

2006-04-03
2006-01-1450
A transient 1D-network simulation model of the relevant power train components and fluid circuits of a state-of-the art passenger car has been developed, including engine, gearbox, coolant, motor oil and gearbox oil circuit. A system analysis was conducted to identify the subsystems of the vehicle where thermal intervention was expected to have major influence on fuel consumption during warm-up. Variable heat flows have been applied to those subsystems in the simulation model and their influence on the NEDC fuel consumption has been evaluated. The results show the potential fuel reduction effects of heat management measures on the respective system components with a special emphasis on the component interaction. A sensitivity study of variable heat distribution among the subsystems of the vehicle shows the optimization potentials of heat management measures. The results from the numerical simulation have been validated in an experimental setup.
Technical Paper

BMW's Magnesium-Aluminium Composite Crankcase, State-of-the-Art Light Metal Casting and Manufacturing

2006-04-03
2006-01-0069
This paper presents new aspects of the casting and manufacturing of BMWs inline six-cylinder engine. This new spark-ignition engine is the realization of the BMW concept of efficient dynamics at high technological level. For the first time in the history of modern engine design, a water-cooled crankcase is manufactured by magnesium casting for mass production. This extraordinary combination of magnesium and aluminium is a milestone in engine construction and took place at the light-metal foundry at BMW's Landshut plant. This paper gives a close summary about process development, the constructive structure, and the manufacturing and testing processes.
Technical Paper

AJ (Mg-Al-Sr) Alloy Mechanical Properties: From Fatigue to Crack Propagation

2005-04-11
2005-01-0729
In addition to the creep properties, the fatigue properties are essential for the design of a power-train component in Mg which is operated at elevated temperatures. In case of the new BMW I6 composite Mg/Al crankcase using the AJ alloy system, material testing focused on both subjects. The basic mechanical properties were determined from separately die cast samples and also from samples machined out from high-pressure die cast components. Tensile, high cycle fatigue properties, low cycle fatigue and crack propagation properties were established and analyzed within the technical context for power-train applications reflected in the temperature and load levels. The aspects of mean stress influence, notch sensitivity and crack propagation are evaluated to estimate the performances of the AJ62A alloy system.
Technical Paper

BMW's Approach of Vehicle Functions and Systems Orientation for Developing Innovative Powertrains

2004-10-18
2004-21-0065
The dramatic increase in data and information exchange has lead to increased communication network complexity within the subsystems of the powertrain itself as well as in all other subsystems of the vehicle. It is essential to manage this complexity during the development process. Applying new processes and methods such as vehicle functions and systems orientation in a top-down structural approach creates a powerful support in development of innovative powertrains. Several technical integration examples of powertrain functions are illustrated for the purpose of demonstrating customer-related advantages. Vehicle functions and systems orientation also has significant impact on organisational structures and cooperation methods to achieve maximum synergies as well as efficient vehicle communication architectures.
Technical Paper

Developing Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence for the Investigation of the Mixture Formation Process in Hydrogen Engines

2004-03-08
2004-01-1408
Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) has been successfully used for the investigation of the mixture formation process in hydrogen engines. Detailed information has been obtained about the process development (qualitative measurements) and on the fuel/air-ratio (quantitative measurements) in the combustion chamber. These results can be used for further optimization of the mixture formation and the combustion process concerning emissions and fuel consumption. The measurement technique used here is not limited to hydrogen and can also be applied to other fuel gases like natural gas. The main topic of this paper is the experimental verification of the PLIF data by simultaneous Raman scattering measurements. By Raman scattering the fuel/air-ratio can directly be determined from the direct concentration measurements of the different gas species.
Technical Paper

AJ (Mg-Al-Sr) Alloy System Used for New Engine Block

2004-03-08
2004-01-0659
AJ alloy is used with a new Aluminum-Magnesium Composite Design, which is an innovative approach to lightweight crankcase technology. The component is manufactured using high pressure die cast process. A wide range of chemical compositions was used to develop a good understanding of the behavior of this alloy system (castability, thermophysical, mechanical, microstructure). The basic mechanical properties were determined from separately die cast samples and also from samples machined out from high pressure die cast components. Tensile, creep, bolt load retention/relaxation and high cycle fatigue properties were established and analyzed using multivariate analysis and statistical approach. This methodology was used to select the optimal chemical composition to match the requirements. The sensitivity of the alloy to heat exposure was investigated for both mechanical properties and microstructure.
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