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Technical Paper

Simulation and Its Contribution to Evaluate Highly Automated Driving Functions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0140
A key criterion for launching autonomous vehicles on real roads is the knowledge of their capability to ensure traffic safety. In contrast to ADAS, deriving this measure of safety is difficult to achieve as the functional scope of an autonomous driving function exceeds by far the one of ADAS. As a consequence, real-world testing solely is not sufficient enough to cover the required test volume. This assessment problem imposes new requirements on a valid test concept for automated driving. A possible solution represents simulation by enabling it to generate reliable test kilometers. As a first step, we discuss in this paper the feasibility of simulation frameworks to re-simulate a real-world test in certain scenarios. We will demonstrate that even with ground truth information of the vehicle odometry and corresponding environment model an acceptable accordance of functional behavior is not guaranteed.
Technical Paper

Student Concept Vehicle: Development and Usability of an Innovative Holographic User Interface Concept and a Novel Parking Assistance System Concept

2019-04-02
2019-01-0396
The Deep Orange program is a concept vehicle development program focused on providing hands-on experience in design, engineering, prototyping and production planning as part of students’ two-year MS graduate education. Throughout this project, the team was challenged to create innovative concepts during the ideation phase as part of building the running vehicle. This paper describes the usability studies performed on two of the vehicle concepts that require driver interaction. One concept is a human machine interface (HMI) that uses a holographic companion that can act as a concierge for all functions of the vehicle. After creating a prototype using existing technologies and developing a user interface controlled by hand gestures, a usability study was completed with older adults. The results suggest the input method was not intuitive. Participants demonstrated better performance with tasks using discrete hand motions in comparison to those that required continuous motions.
Journal Article

Further Investigations on the Flow Around a Rotating, Isolated Wheel with Detailed Tread Pattern

2015-04-14
2015-01-1554
Efforts in aerodynamic optimization of road vehicles have been steadily increasing in recent years, mainly focusing on the reduction of aerodynamic drag. Of a car's total drag, wheels and wheel houses account for approx. 25 percent. Consequently, the flow around automotive wheels has lately been investigated intensively. Previously, the authors studied a treaded, deformable, isolated full-scale tire rotating in contact with the ground in the wind tunnel and using the Lattice-Boltzmann solver Exa PowerFLOW. It was shown that applying a common numerical setup, with velocity boundary condition prescribed on the tread, significant errors were introduced in the simulation. The contact patch separation was exaggerated and the flow field from wind tunnel measurements could not be reproduced. This investigation carries on the work by examining sensitivities and new approaches in the setup.
Journal Article

Maneuver-Based Analysis of Starting-Systems and Starting-Strategies for the Internal Combustion Engine in Full Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2014-10-13
2014-01-2901
The requirement of the start of the internal combustion engine (ICE) not only at vehicle standstill is new for full hybrid electric vehicles in comparison to conventional vehicles. However, the customer will not accept any deterioration with respect to dynamics and comfort. ICE-starting-systems and -strategies have to be designed to meet those demands. Within this research, a method was developed which allows a reproducible maneuver-based analysis of ICE-starts. In the first step, a maneuver catalogue including a customer-oriented maneuver program with appropriate analysis criteria was defined. Afterwards, the maneuvers were implemented and verified in a special test bench environment. Based on the method, two sample hybrid vehicles were benchmarked according to the maneuver catalogue. The benchmarking results demonstrate important dependencies between the criteria-based assessment of ICE-starts and the embedded ICE-starting-system and -strategy.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Performance Assessment of BMW Validation Models using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0297
Aerodynamic performance assessment of automotive shapes is typically performed in wind tunnels. However, with the rapid progress in computer hardware technology and the maturity and accuracy of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software packages, evaluation of the production-level automotive shapes using a digital process has become a reality. As the time to market shrinks, automakers are adopting a digital design process for vehicle development. This has elevated the accuracy requirements on the flow simulation software, so that it can be used effectively in the production environment. Evaluation of aerodynamic performance covers prediction of the aerodynamic coefficients such as drag, lift, side force and also lift balance between the front and rear axle. Drag prediction accuracy is important for meeting fuel efficiency targets, prediction of front and rear lifts as well as side force and yawing moment are crucial for high speed handling.
Technical Paper

Cycle Life Investigations on Different Li-Ion Cell Chemistries for PHEV Applications Based on Real Life Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0656
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) are becoming increasingly important as an intermediate step on the roadmap to Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV). Li-Ion is the most important battery technology for future hybrid and electrical vehicles. Cycle life of batteries for automotive applications is a major concern of design and development on vehicles with electrified powertrain. Cell manufacturers present various cell chemistries based on Li-Ion technology. For choosing cells with the best cycle life performance appropriate test methods and criteria must be obtained. Cells must be stressed with accelerated aging methods, which correlate with real life conditions. There is always a conflict between high accelerating factors for fast results on the one hand and best accordance with reality on the other hand. Investigations are done on three different Li-Ion cell types which are applicable in the use of PHEVs.
Video

BMW i3 - A Battery Electric Vehicle...Right from the Beginning

2012-03-29
What are the requirements of customers in an urban environment? What will sustainable mobility look like in the future? This presentation gives an overview of the integrated approach used by BMW to develop the BMW i3 - a purpose-built battery electric vehicle. Very low driving resistances for such a vehicle concept enable the delivery of both impressive range and driving excitement. A small optional auxiliary power unit offers range security for unexpected situations and opens up BEVs to customers who are willing to buy a BEV but are still hesitant due to range anxiety. Additional electric vehicles sold to the formerly range anxious will create additional electric miles. Presenter Franz Storkenmaier, BMW Group
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Vehicle Aerodynamics under Time-Dependent Flow Conditions - Part2

2011-04-12
2011-01-0164
Unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomena are investigated in a wind tunnel by oscillating a realistic 50% scale model around the vertical axis. Thus the model is exposed to time-dependent flow conditions at realistic Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. Using this setup unsteady aerodynamic loads are observed to differ significantly from quasi steady loads. In particular, the unsteady yaw moment exceeds the quasi steady approximation significantly. On the other hand, side force and roll moment are over predicted by quasi steady approximation but exhibit a significant time delay. Part 2 of this study proves that a delayed and enhanced response of the surface pressures at the rear side of the vehicle is responsible for the differences between unsteady and quasi steady loads. The pressure changes at the vehicle front, however, are shown to have similar amplitudes and almost no phase shift compared to quasi steady flow conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Vehicle Aerodynamics under Time-Dependent Flow Conditions - Part 1

2011-04-12
2011-01-0177
Unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomena are investigated in the wind tunnel by oscillating a realistic 50% scale model around its vertical axis. Thus the model is exposed to time-dependent flow conditions at realistic Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. Using this setup unsteady aerodynamic loads are observed to differ significantly from quasi-steady loads. In particular, the unsteady yaw moment exceeds the quasi-steady approximation by 80%. On the other hand, side force and roll moment are over predicted by quasi-steady approximation but exhibit a significant time delay. Using hotwire anemometry, a delayed reaction of the wake flow of Δt/T = 0.15 is observed, which is thought to be the principal cause for the differences between unsteady and quasi-steady aerodynamic loads. A schematic mechanism explaining these differences due to the delayed reaction of the wake flow is proposed.
Journal Article

A New Approach to Analyzing Cooling and Interference Drag

2010-04-12
2010-01-0286
This paper presents a new approach to analyzing and developing low-drag cooling systems. A relation is derived which describes cooling drag by a number of contributions. Interference drag clearly can be identified as one of them. Cooling system parameters can be assigned to different terms of the relation, so that differences due to parameter variations of the individual drag contributions can be estimated. In order to predict the interference-drag dependency on the outlet location and the local outlet mass flow, an extensive study on a standard BMW sedan has been carried out, both experimentally and by CFD. The results show the importance of providing consistent outflow conditions which take into account the outlet location and flow direction, in order to minimize cooling drag.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Hybrid-Electric Powertrains on Chassis Systems and Vehicle Dynamics

2009-04-20
2009-01-0442
While hybrid-electric powertrain features such as regenerative braking and electric driving can improve the fuel economy of a vehicle significantly, these features may also have a considerable impact on driving dynamics. That is why extra effort is necessary to ensure safety and comfort that customers usually expect from a conventional vehicle. The purpose of this paper is to initiate a discussion regarding different drivetrain concepts, necessary changes in chassis systems, and the impact on vehicle dynamics. To provide input to this essential discussion, braking and steering systems, as well as suspension design, are analyzed regarding their fit with hybrid systems. It is shown how an integration of hybrid technology and chassis systems benefits vehicle dynamics and why “by-wire” technology is a key enabler for safe and comfortable hybrid-electric vehicles.
Journal Article

Implementation and Validation of the G-equation Model Coupled with Flamelet Libraries for Simulating Premixed Combustion in I.C. Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0709
The G-equation model was implemented in the commercial code ANSYS CFX and validated against experimental data in order to successfully simulate turbulent premixed combustion in internal combustion engines. The model is based on the level-set approach. Two transport equations are solved respectively for the G-scalar mean value, representing the local distance function from the time-averaged mean flame front, and its variance, correlated to the turbulent flame brush thickness. The model closure for tracking the flame front is based on an algebraic expression for the turbulent burning velocity. The composition of the reacted mixture is evaluated by coupling the code with flamelet libraries generated with the ANSYS CFX-RIF package by means of a reaction progress variable computed as a function of the G-related quantities.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Underbody Pressure Distribution of a Series Vehicle on the Road and in the Wind Tunnel

2008-04-14
2008-01-0802
Underbody aerodynamics has become increasingly important over the last three decades because of its vital contribution to improving a vehicle's overall performance. This was the motivation for the research conducted by BMW Aerodynamics, concerning the determination of the overall pressure distribution on the underbody of a series-production vehicle. Static pressure measurements have been taken under various test conditions. Real on-road tests were carried out as well as wind tunnel experiments under application of different road simulation techniques. The analyzed vehicle configurations include wheel rim-tire and body modifications. The results presented include surface pressure data, drag and lift coefficients, ride heights, pitch and roll angles. The acquired data is used to examine the underbody flow topology and determine how the diverse attempts to represent the real on-road conditions affect its pressure distribution.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Underbody Windnoise Sources on a Production Vehicle using a Lattice Boltzmann Scheme

2007-05-15
2007-01-2400
A computational analysis of underbody windnoise sources on a production automobile at 180 km/h free stream air speed and 0° yaw is presented. Two different underbody geometry configurations were considered for this study. The numerical results have been obtained using the commercial software PowerFLOW. The simulation kernel of this software is based on the numerical scheme known as the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM), combined with a two-equation RNG turbulence model. This scheme accurately captures time-dependent aerodynamic behavior of turbulent flows over complex detailed geometries, including the pressure fluctuations causing wind noise. Comparison of pressure fluctuations levels mapped on a fluid plane below the underbody shows very good correlation between experiment and simulation. Detailed flow analysis was done for both configurations to obtain insight into the transient nature of the flow field in the underbody region.
Technical Paper

Reinforced Light Metals for Automotive Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-1228
Efficiency and dynamic behavior of a vehicle are strongly affected by its weight. Taking into consideration comfort, safety and emissions in modern automobiles, lightweight design is more of a challenge than ever in automotive engineering. Materials development plays an important role against this background, since significant weight decrease is made possible through the substitution of high density materials and more precise adjustment of material parameters to the functional requirements of components. Reinforced light metals, therefore, offer a promising approach due to their high strength to weight ratio. The paper gives an overview on matrix and reinforcement structures suited for the high volume output of the automotive industry. Further analytical and numerical approaches to describe the strengthening effects and the good mechanical characteristics of these composite materials are presented.
Technical Paper

On Various Aspects of the Unsteady Aerodynamic Effects on Cars Under Crosswind Conditions

2007-04-16
2007-01-1548
Currently, the aerodynamic development of a car concentrates on steady state aerodynamic forces. Development is mainly performed in wind tunnels with very low turbulence. On the road we find other boundary conditions. Natural wind, other cars and trucks influence the yawing moment and the side force. During acceleration and deceleration the vehicle speed is not constant, the effect of unsteady aerodynamic forces is especially important and can not be neglected. The approach to measure unsteady effects is to use a wind tunnel that has the capability to produce unsteady flow and in addition to instrument a car to drive under natural windy conditions. The wind tunnel, with its reproducible conditions, allows measurements to be made with well defined frequencies of the approaching flow. This is important since the aerodynamic forces are not sensitive to all frequencies in the same way. One way to increase driving comfort is to reduce these forces at specific frequencies.
Technical Paper

Needs and Possibilities for the Correction of Drag and Lift Wheel Forces which have been Derived by Integrating its Static Pressure Distribution

2006-12-05
2006-01-3623
Knowing the wheel forces on a vehicle under various circumstances and configurations is essential for its aerodynamic development. This becomes crucial when dealing with a racing car. This was the driving force for the initial research conducted in the BMW Aerodynamics Department [1] concerning the aerodynamic forces of an isolated 1:2 racing wheel. The latter were determined for various arrangements with the use of a system equipped with pressure transducers distributed on the wheel surface. While the pressure wheel is adequate for revealing flow structures surrounding it as well as highlighting its physics, it is nevertheless insufficient for the prediction of the wheel forces with high accuracy. As will be shown, this is mainly the consequence of the absent contribution of skin friction, the mathematical method engaged in post–processing and the restricted number of pressure transducers.
Technical Paper

Psychoacoustic Modelling of Sound Attributes

2006-04-03
2006-01-0098
This study inquired into perceived attributes of car interior noise and correlating psychoacoustic parameters. Auditory assessments of a total of 29 vehicles were performed during cruise and acceleration in two independent road tests. Four perceptual dimensions were found to determine the sound evaluations: comfort/loudness, sportiness, harshness, and timbre. A regression model was used to predict comfort/loudness from sound level, roughness, sharpness and speech intelligibility (SVI). Instrumental assessments of engine roughness demonstrated to predict harshness to a large extent. Sportiness was substantially correlated with the increase of engine sound level due to load change. The latter finding was further examined in a third experiment, using sound synthesis in a test vehicle.
Technical Paper

The European Union Mg-Engine Project - Generation of Material Property Data for Four Die Cast Mg-Alloys

2006-04-03
2006-01-0070
A specific objective of the European Mg-Engine project is to qualify at least two die cast Mg alloys with improved high temperature properties, in addition to satisfactory corrosion resistance, castability and costs. This paper discusses the selection criteria for high temperature alloys leading to four candidate alloys, AJ52A, AJ62A, AE44 and AE35. Tensile-, creep- and fatigue testing of standard die cast test specimens at different temperatures and conditions have led to a very large amount of material property data. Numerous examples are given to underline the potential for these alloys in high temperature automotive applications. The subsequent use of the basic property data in material models for design of automotive components is illustrated.
Technical Paper

Premium Clear Coat at BMW Group

2006-04-03
2006-01-0751
Automotive clear coats have a broad field of requirements to fulfill, e.g. weathering stability, stone chipping, chemical resistance, scratch resistance, and have to show a brilliant surface appearance. Beside this, the paint and repair process for high volume car manufacturing must be fulfilled with respect to costs and the environment. From the development point of view of a car manufacture interactions between these properties and the critical way of understanding and describing the value for the customer is shown. The conclusion of this scenario and a detailed benchmark study of different new clear coats guide to the development of the ‘Next generation’ of powder clear coats.
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