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Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Vehicle Aerodynamics under Time-Dependent Flow Conditions - Part2

2011-04-12
2011-01-0164
Unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomena are investigated in a wind tunnel by oscillating a realistic 50% scale model around the vertical axis. Thus the model is exposed to time-dependent flow conditions at realistic Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. Using this setup unsteady aerodynamic loads are observed to differ significantly from quasi steady loads. In particular, the unsteady yaw moment exceeds the quasi steady approximation significantly. On the other hand, side force and roll moment are over predicted by quasi steady approximation but exhibit a significant time delay. Part 2 of this study proves that a delayed and enhanced response of the surface pressures at the rear side of the vehicle is responsible for the differences between unsteady and quasi steady loads. The pressure changes at the vehicle front, however, are shown to have similar amplitudes and almost no phase shift compared to quasi steady flow conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Vehicle Aerodynamics under Time-Dependent Flow Conditions - Part 1

2011-04-12
2011-01-0177
Unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomena are investigated in the wind tunnel by oscillating a realistic 50% scale model around its vertical axis. Thus the model is exposed to time-dependent flow conditions at realistic Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. Using this setup unsteady aerodynamic loads are observed to differ significantly from quasi-steady loads. In particular, the unsteady yaw moment exceeds the quasi-steady approximation by 80%. On the other hand, side force and roll moment are over predicted by quasi-steady approximation but exhibit a significant time delay. Using hotwire anemometry, a delayed reaction of the wake flow of Δt/T = 0.15 is observed, which is thought to be the principal cause for the differences between unsteady and quasi-steady aerodynamic loads. A schematic mechanism explaining these differences due to the delayed reaction of the wake flow is proposed.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Hybrid-Electric Powertrains on Chassis Systems and Vehicle Dynamics

2009-04-20
2009-01-0442
While hybrid-electric powertrain features such as regenerative braking and electric driving can improve the fuel economy of a vehicle significantly, these features may also have a considerable impact on driving dynamics. That is why extra effort is necessary to ensure safety and comfort that customers usually expect from a conventional vehicle. The purpose of this paper is to initiate a discussion regarding different drivetrain concepts, necessary changes in chassis systems, and the impact on vehicle dynamics. To provide input to this essential discussion, braking and steering systems, as well as suspension design, are analyzed regarding their fit with hybrid systems. It is shown how an integration of hybrid technology and chassis systems benefits vehicle dynamics and why “by-wire” technology is a key enabler for safe and comfortable hybrid-electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Underbody Pressure Distribution of a Series Vehicle on the Road and in the Wind Tunnel

2008-04-14
2008-01-0802
Underbody aerodynamics has become increasingly important over the last three decades because of its vital contribution to improving a vehicle's overall performance. This was the motivation for the research conducted by BMW Aerodynamics, concerning the determination of the overall pressure distribution on the underbody of a series-production vehicle. Static pressure measurements have been taken under various test conditions. Real on-road tests were carried out as well as wind tunnel experiments under application of different road simulation techniques. The analyzed vehicle configurations include wheel rim-tire and body modifications. The results presented include surface pressure data, drag and lift coefficients, ride heights, pitch and roll angles. The acquired data is used to examine the underbody flow topology and determine how the diverse attempts to represent the real on-road conditions affect its pressure distribution.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Underbody Windnoise Sources on a Production Vehicle using a Lattice Boltzmann Scheme

2007-05-15
2007-01-2400
A computational analysis of underbody windnoise sources on a production automobile at 180 km/h free stream air speed and 0° yaw is presented. Two different underbody geometry configurations were considered for this study. The numerical results have been obtained using the commercial software PowerFLOW. The simulation kernel of this software is based on the numerical scheme known as the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM), combined with a two-equation RNG turbulence model. This scheme accurately captures time-dependent aerodynamic behavior of turbulent flows over complex detailed geometries, including the pressure fluctuations causing wind noise. Comparison of pressure fluctuations levels mapped on a fluid plane below the underbody shows very good correlation between experiment and simulation. Detailed flow analysis was done for both configurations to obtain insight into the transient nature of the flow field in the underbody region.
Technical Paper

On Various Aspects of the Unsteady Aerodynamic Effects on Cars Under Crosswind Conditions

2007-04-16
2007-01-1548
Currently, the aerodynamic development of a car concentrates on steady state aerodynamic forces. Development is mainly performed in wind tunnels with very low turbulence. On the road we find other boundary conditions. Natural wind, other cars and trucks influence the yawing moment and the side force. During acceleration and deceleration the vehicle speed is not constant, the effect of unsteady aerodynamic forces is especially important and can not be neglected. The approach to measure unsteady effects is to use a wind tunnel that has the capability to produce unsteady flow and in addition to instrument a car to drive under natural windy conditions. The wind tunnel, with its reproducible conditions, allows measurements to be made with well defined frequencies of the approaching flow. This is important since the aerodynamic forces are not sensitive to all frequencies in the same way. One way to increase driving comfort is to reduce these forces at specific frequencies.
Technical Paper

Steering System Development in Premium Car Segment

2006-04-03
2006-01-0935
A top-of-the-range car customer not only expects exceptional vehicle design and quality but also a driving experience, which is out of the ordinary. Very harmonious interaction between vehicle dynamics and the steering system is required to offer clients such a consistent driving experience through generations of vehicle models. In this paper the basic properties of a premium driving experience are explored. It is shown that outstanding handling limits are a prerequisite, although most customers never experience such driving situations. In fact, on-center behavior is most crucial in enabling clients to experience part of premium driving performance, and the steering system is the key factor in delivering appropriate feedback to the driver by means of steering torque. Development procedures are presented to achieve the goals described above.
Technical Paper

GPS Augmented Vehicle Dynamics Control

2006-04-03
2006-01-1275
Measurements from a Global Navigation System in conjunction with an Inertial Measurement Unit were recently introduced in different aerial and ground vehicles as an input to control vehicle dynamics. In automobiles this approach could help to further improve braking and / or stability control systems as information like velocity over ground and side slip angle becomes available. This paper presents the technical background, validation through test results and the evaluation of potential benefits of such an “INS/GPS” setup. As a result of the extended measuring capabilities a reduction in braking distance and a more effective stability control becomes possible. The results show an excellent performance that should be exploited in future automotive applications.
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