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Technical Paper

Cycle Life Investigations on Different Li-Ion Cell Chemistries for PHEV Applications Based on Real Life Conditions

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) are becoming increasingly important as an intermediate step on the roadmap to Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV). Li-Ion is the most important battery technology for future hybrid and electrical vehicles. Cycle life of batteries for automotive applications is a major concern of design and development on vehicles with electrified powertrain. Cell manufacturers present various cell chemistries based on Li-Ion technology. For choosing cells with the best cycle life performance appropriate test methods and criteria must be obtained. Cells must be stressed with accelerated aging methods, which correlate with real life conditions. There is always a conflict between high accelerating factors for fast results on the one hand and best accordance with reality on the other hand. Investigations are done on three different Li-Ion cell types which are applicable in the use of PHEVs.
Technical Paper

Test Center for Aging Analysis and Characterization of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Automotive Applications

A test center for aging analysis and characterization of Lithium-Ion batteries for automotive applications is optimized by means of a dedicated cell tester. The new power tester offers high current magnitude with fast rise time in order to generate arbitrary charge and discharge waveforms, which are identical to real power net signals in vehicles. Upcoming hybrid and electrical cars show fast current transients due to the implemented power electronics like inverter or DC/DC converter. The various test procedures consider single and coupled effects from current profile, state of charge and temperature. They are simultaneously applied on several cells in order to derive statistical significance. Comprehensive safely functions on both the hardware and the software level ensure proper operation of the complex system.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Engine Models

Engine management systems in modern motor vehicles are becoming increasingly extensive and complex. The functionality of the control units which are the central components of such systems is determined by the hardware and software. They are the result of a lengthy development and production process. Road testing of control units, together with testing them on the engine test bench, is very time consuming and costly. An alternative is to test control units away from their actual environment, in a virtual context. This involves operating the control unit on a Hardware-in-the-Loop test bench. The control unit's large number of individual and interlinked functions necessitates a structured, reproducible test procedure. These tests can, however, only be conducted once an engine prototype has been completed, as the parameters for the existing conventional models are determined from the data measured on the test bench.
Technical Paper

Research Results and Progress in LeaNOx II -A Co-operation for Lean NOx Abatement

In a consortium of European industrial partners and research institutes, a combination of industrial development and scientific research was organised. The objective was to improve the catalytic NOx conversion for lean burn cars and heavy-duty trucks, taking into account boundary conditions for the fuel consumption. The project lasted for three years. During this period parallel research was conducted in research areas ranging from basic research based on a theoretical approach to full scale emission system development. NOx storage catalysts became a central part of the project. Catalysts were evaluated with respect to resistance towards sulphur poisoning. It was concluded that very low sulphur fuel is a necessity for efficient use of NOx trap technology. Additionally, attempts were made to develop methods for reactivating poisoned catalysts. Methods for short distance mixing were developed for the addition of reducing agent.