Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 6 of 6
Technical Paper

Injury Risk to Specific Body Regions of Pedestrians in Frontal Vehicle Crashes Modeled by Empirical, In-Depth Accident Data

Evaluation of safety benefits is an essential task during design and development of pedestrian protection systems. Comparative evaluation of different safety concepts is facilitated by a common metric taking into account the expected human benefits. Translation of physical characteristics of a collision, such as impact speed, into human benefits requires reliable and preferably evidence-based injury models. To this end, the dependence of injury severity of body regions on explanatory factors is quantified here using the US Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) for pedestrians in frontal vehicle collisions. The explanatory and causal factors include vehicle component characteristics, physiological and biomechanical variables, and crash parameters. Severe to serious injuries most often involve the head, thorax and lower extremities.
Journal Article

An Approach to Model Sheet Failure After Onset of Localized Necking in Industrial High Strength Steel Stamping and Crash Simulations

In large-scale industrial simulations the numerical prediction of fracture in sheet metal forming operations as well as in crash events is still a challenging task of high social and economic relevance. Among several approaches presented in literature, the authors and their colleagues developed a model which accounts each for three different mechanisms leading finally to fracture in thin sheet metals: the local instability (necking), ductile normal fracture and ductile shear fracture. The focus of this paper is to develop and validate a new approach to improve the predictive capabilities for fracture triggered by localized necking for a wide variety of steel grades. It is well known that after the onset of a local instability additional strain is still necessary to induce fracture. In a numerical simulation using shell elements this post instability strain becomes of increasing importance when the ratio of the characteristic shell element edge length to its thickness decreases.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Side Impact Simulation Using ABAQUS/Explicit

In order to protect occupants from the risk of serious injury in event of side impact, passenger vehicles are designed to fulfil specific legislative and consumer impact test requirements. These are generally different for each of the major markets of the world. The tests use different configurations and percentile dummies (anthropomorphic test devices). Aside from the problem of finding an optimal design, the reliable evaluation of the robustness, i.e. the sensitivity of unavoidable scatter of design variables due to the structural response, is becoming increasingly important. For this purpose simulation is a well established tool in the development process in the automotive industry. The integration of FE-dummies and restraint systems in side impact simulations enables the study of the effect of dummy loading. ABAQUS/Explicit is a promising new software package for gaining more accuracy in crashworthiness and occupant protection simulations.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Human Kinematics and Injuries in Side Crash Scenarios

Optimizing protection for side impact in vehicle design requires valid information about occupant behavior under lateral loading. For this reason a comparison of numerical models of dummies and human body in side impact scenarios is shown to estimate the benefits of using numerical human models in future safety design. First a well-known sled test set up was simulated to compare the two devices in a defined surrounding. After looking at the kinematics, the loads, accelerations and injury values of the occupants were derived and compared to each other. Second the occupant models were positioned in a vehicle model to compare their behavior in a more complex loading case, such as an EuroNCAP Barrier Test. Focus of this investigation was the injury mechanism occurring in the human model. The Behavior of the Dummy and H-Model is comparable and shows similar responses in a global view.
Technical Paper

Continuos Failure Prediction Model for Nonlinear Load Paths in Successive Stamping and Crash Processes

The validity of numerical simulations is still limited by the unknown failure of materials when nonlinear load paths in successive stamping and crash processes occur. Localized necking is the main mechanism for fractures in ductile sheet metal. The classical forming limit curve (FLC) is limited to linear strain paths. To include the effects of nonlinear strain paths a theoretical model for instability (algorithm CRACH) has been used. The algorithm has been developed on the basis of the Marciniak model [8]. The calibration and validation of this approach is done by a set of multistage experiments under static and dynamic strain rates for a mild steel.
Technical Paper

CAE Driven Passive Safety Development for a Sports Activity Vehicle (SAV)

Sport Activity Vehicle (SAV) share a growing market of an entirely new class of vehicles. Outstanding comfort in traditional on-road and also off-road terrain combined with leading edge technology are basic features of this concept. But in addition to that, the SAV has to offer the same overall safety features, expected by e.g. a luxury-segment sedan. A way to ensure the BMW X5 becoming one of the safest cars was the consequent use of simulation techniques in passive safety development. This paper deals with introduction of a CAE driven development process for passive safety in the BMW X5 project, focusing on examples in front and side impact.