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Technical Paper

Motion Cueing Algorithm for a 9 DoF Driving Simulator: MPC with Linearized Actuator Constraints

2018-04-03
2018-01-0570
In times when automated driving is becoming increasingly relevant, dynamic simulators present an appropriate simulation environment to faithfully reproduce driving scenarios. A realistic replication of driving dynamics is an important criterion to immerse persons in the virtual environments provided by the simulator. Motion Cueing Algorithms (MCAs) compute the simulator’s control input, based on the motions of the simulated vehicle. The technical restrictions of the simulator’s actuators form the main limitation in the execution of these input commands. Typical dynamic simulators consist of a hexapod with six degrees of freedom (DoF) to reproduce the vehicle motion in all dimensions. Since its workspace dimensions are limited, significant improvements in motion capabilities can be achieved by expanding the simulator with redundant DoF by means of additional actuators.
Technical Paper

Conceptualization and Implementation of a Scalable Powertrain, Modular Energy Storage and an Alternative Cooling System on a Student Concept Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1185
The Deep Orange program immerses automotive engineering students into the world of an OEM as part of their 2-year graduate education. In support of developing the program’s seventh vehicle concept, the students studied the sponsoring brand essence, conducted market research, and made a heuristic assessment of competitor vehicles. The upfront research lead to the definition of target customers and setting vehicle level targets that were broken down into requirements to develop various vehicle sub-systems. The powertrain team was challenged to develop a scalable propulsion concept enabled by a common vehicle architecture that allowed future customers to select (at the point of purchase) among various levels of electrification best suiting their needs and personal desires. Four different configurations were identified and developed: all-electric, two plug-in hybrid electric configurations, and an internal combustion engine only.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation of Dampening Dynamic Profiles for the Application in Transient Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0642
As computational methodologies become more integrated into industrial vehicle pre-development processes the potential for high transient vehicle thermal simulations is evident. This can also been seen in conjunction with the strong rise in computing power, which ultimately has supported many automotive manufactures in attempting non-steady simulation conditions. The following investigation aims at exploring an efficient means of utilizing the new rise in computing resources by resolving high time-dependent boundary conditions through a series of averaging methodologies. Through understanding the sensitivities associated with dynamic component temperature changes, optimised boundary conditions can be implemented to dampen irrelevant input frequencies whilst maintaining thermally critical velocity gradients.
Journal Article

An Innovative Approach to Race Track Simulations for Vehicle Thermal Management

2013-11-20
2013-01-9121
Within the pre-development phase of a vehicle validation process, the role of computational simulation is becoming increasingly prominent in efforts to ensure thermal safety. This gain in popularity has resulted from the cost and time advantages that simulation has compared to experimental testing. Additionally many of these early concepts cannot be validated through experimental means due to the lack of hardware, and must be evaluated via numerical methods. The Race Track Simulation (RTS) can be considered as the final frontier for vehicle thermal management techniques, and to date no coherent method has been published which provides an efficient means of numerically modeling the temperature behavior of components without the dependency on statistical experimental data.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Performance Assessment of BMW Validation Models using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0297
Aerodynamic performance assessment of automotive shapes is typically performed in wind tunnels. However, with the rapid progress in computer hardware technology and the maturity and accuracy of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software packages, evaluation of the production-level automotive shapes using a digital process has become a reality. As the time to market shrinks, automakers are adopting a digital design process for vehicle development. This has elevated the accuracy requirements on the flow simulation software, so that it can be used effectively in the production environment. Evaluation of aerodynamic performance covers prediction of the aerodynamic coefficients such as drag, lift, side force and also lift balance between the front and rear axle. Drag prediction accuracy is important for meeting fuel efficiency targets, prediction of front and rear lifts as well as side force and yawing moment are crucial for high speed handling.
Technical Paper

Contemporary Crash Analysis as a Building Block in Holistic Multidisciplinary Structural Analysis

2008-04-14
2008-01-1127
The trend in the previous years showed that an ideal product is not obtained as a sum of development results of several separated disciplines but rather as a result of a holistic multidisciplinary CAE approach. In the course of the whole component development process it is necessary to consider all functions of an individual component equivalent to their importance in the system as a whole, in order to achieve both a technical and a financial optimum. The predictability and the accuracy of an individual computational method have to be regarded against the background of the entire simulation process. A continuative CAE-standard and a harmonious interaction between the different computational disciplines promise more success than focusing specifically on individual topics and thereby neglecting the “bigger picture”. This awareness provided the basis for a decision to change the entire crash simulation software to ABAQUS.
Technical Paper

Enhancing Navigation Systems with Quality Controlled Traffic Data

2008-04-14
2008-01-0200
As the popularity of vehicle navigation systems rises, incorporating Real Time Traffic Information (RTTI) has been shown to enhance the systems' value by helping drivers avoid traffic delays. As an innovative premium automaker, BMW has developed a testing process to acquire and analyze RTTI data in order to ensure delivery of a high quality service and to enhance the customer experience compared to audible broadcast services. With a methodology to obtain valid and repeatable RTTI data quality measurements, BMW and its service partner, Clear Channel's Total Traffic Network (TTN), can improve its offered service over time, implement corrective measures when appropriate, and confidently ensure the service meets its premium objectives. BMW has partnered with TTN and SoftSolutions GmbH to implement a traffic data quality process and software tools.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

2006-10-16
2006-21-0019
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Wash off Resistant 1-Component Structural Adhesives

2006-04-03
2006-01-0975
The application of crash durable structural adhesives in modern cars design, to improve the driving durability, the overall vehicle stiffness, the crash resistance and to make real light weight constructions feasible is significantly gaining in importance. 1-component systems are already introduced in the market and used in automotive industries. Usually the use of these bonds in automotive industries is limited by a relatively low wash off resistance in the pre-treatment tanks of the paint shop. If no additional actions are taken, there is a severe risk of wash off of the adhesives up to the partial loss in functionality. Respectively contamination of the pre-treatment tanks and aftereffects damage the surface of the coated cars. To avoid wash off a thermal process (oven) to pre-gel the adhesive in the flanges of the Body-In-White (BIW)- bodies before entering the pre-treatment utility is necessary. This is a save but cost intensive solution.
Technical Paper

Software-Intensive Systems in the Automotive Domain:Challenges for Research and Education

2006-04-03
2006-01-1458
Software-intensive systems and functions drive innovations in cars today. OEMs and suppliers face multiple challenges to take advantage of possibilities in this area. The rapidly developing field of software-intensive systems and software-based features in the automotive domain asks for dedicated engineering approaches, models, and processes. This paper defines the characteristics of software engineering for automotive systems and discusses methodological, technological, and organizational implications. These are used to pinpoint promising research areas as well as educational ramifications.
Technical Paper

BMW's Energy Strategy - Promoting the Technical and Political Implementation

2000-03-06
2000-01-1324
BMW can look back on 20 years of research activities on hydrogen propulsion systems. Hydrogen fuel is the only means of offering pure driving pleasure on the basis of a sustainable energy loop. As the hydrogen era is still quite a while away the BMW Energy Strategy „Via Natural Gas to Hydrogen” has been developed. The first step was to build series-production compressed natural gas (CNG) cars back in 1995. By switching to liquefied natural gas (LNG) not only is the cruising range tripled but technologically the final stepping-stone is reached in preparing the way for liquefied hydrogen. BMW's automotive and drive technology for hydrogen is now available and ready to move out of the laboratory on to the road. At Munich Airport a BMW „Clean Energy” car is already providing shuttle services. Its fuel is supplied by the world's first public filling station for liquefied hydrogen.
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