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Technical Paper

Frequency and Temperature Dependent Stiffness and Damping Properties of Reduced Viscoelastic Structures Using Component Mode Synthesis (CMS)

2018-06-13
2018-01-1498
Model Order Reduction (MOR) methods such as Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) have been used in order to simulate large linear dynamic systems for many years and have reached a considerable level of saturation. These reduction methods have many advantages such as minimizing computational costs but also have restrictions. One of their disadvantages is that material damping characteristics can only be defined in form of Rayleigh damping. Another disadvantage is that the reduced order model can only represent one state of the structure determined in the generation process of the reduced matrices. In this paper we present a way to consider material damping in reduced matrices that contain one or more materials having different damping characteristics without the disadvantages of using Rayleigh damping.
Technical Paper

System Level Design Simulation to Predict Passive Safety Performance for CFRP Automotive Structures

2013-04-08
2013-01-0663
Despite increasingly stringent crash requirements, the body structures of future mainstream production cars need to get lighter. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites with a density 1/5th of steel and very high specific energy absorption represent a material technology where substantial mass can be saved when compared to traditional steel applications. BMW have addressed the demanding challenges of producing several hundred composite Body-in-White (BIW) assemblies a day and are committed to significant adoption of composites in future vehicle platforms, as demonstrated in the upcoming i3 and i8 models. A next step to further integrate composites into passenger cars is for primary structural members, which also perform critical roles in passive safety by absorbing large amounts of energy during a crash event.
Journal Article

An Approach to Model Sheet Failure After Onset of Localized Necking in Industrial High Strength Steel Stamping and Crash Simulations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0503
In large-scale industrial simulations the numerical prediction of fracture in sheet metal forming operations as well as in crash events is still a challenging task of high social and economic relevance. Among several approaches presented in literature, the authors and their colleagues developed a model which accounts each for three different mechanisms leading finally to fracture in thin sheet metals: the local instability (necking), ductile normal fracture and ductile shear fracture. The focus of this paper is to develop and validate a new approach to improve the predictive capabilities for fracture triggered by localized necking for a wide variety of steel grades. It is well known that after the onset of a local instability additional strain is still necessary to induce fracture. In a numerical simulation using shell elements this post instability strain becomes of increasing importance when the ratio of the characteristic shell element edge length to its thickness decreases.
Journal Article

Mechanical Property Evaluation of Permanent-Mould Cast AM-SC1™ Mg-Alloy

2008-04-14
2008-01-0375
AM-SC1™ is a high temperature Mg alloy that was originally developed as a sand casting alloy for automotive powertrain applications. The alloy has been selected as the engine block material for both the AVL Genios LE and the USCAR lightweight magnesium engine projects. The present work assesses the potential of this alloy for permanent-mould die cast applications. Thermo-physical and mechanical properties of AM-SC1 were determined for material derived from a permanent-mould die casting process. The mechanical properties determined included: tensile, creep, bolt load retention/relaxation and both low and high cycle fatigue. To better assess the creep performance, a comparative analysis of the normalized creep properties was carried out using the Mukherjee-Dorn parameter, which confirmed the high viscoplastic performance of AM-SC1 compared with common creep resistant high pressure die cast (HPDC) Mg-alloys.
Technical Paper

Reinforced Light Metals for Automotive Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-1228
Efficiency and dynamic behavior of a vehicle are strongly affected by its weight. Taking into consideration comfort, safety and emissions in modern automobiles, lightweight design is more of a challenge than ever in automotive engineering. Materials development plays an important role against this background, since significant weight decrease is made possible through the substitution of high density materials and more precise adjustment of material parameters to the functional requirements of components. Reinforced light metals, therefore, offer a promising approach due to their high strength to weight ratio. The paper gives an overview on matrix and reinforcement structures suited for the high volume output of the automotive industry. Further analytical and numerical approaches to describe the strengthening effects and the good mechanical characteristics of these composite materials are presented.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

2006-10-16
2006-21-0019
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Nanomaterials - A New Dimension in Automotive Engineering

2006-04-03
2006-01-0105
Modern automotive engineering is more than ever affected by a multitude of different and sometimes contradictory requirements. Innovative materials play an increasingly important role in ensuring the fulfillment of these requirements. Conventional material development has always met these demands to a high standard. However, there will be challenges where nanotechnology will provide us with even more intelligent solutions. Consequently, automotive engineering makes more and more use of the large variety of new technological functionalities and innovative applications offered by nanotechnology. Nanotechnology involves property changes that only occur at the nanoscale. Some selected properties are suitable to be used in the design of tailored materials called nanomaterials, opening up a new dimension in automotive engineering. Nanomaterials promise valuable progress through new functionalities, in particular safety and quality rating applications or lightweight construction.
Technical Paper

The European Union Mg-Engine Project - Generation of Material Property Data for Four Die Cast Mg-Alloys

2006-04-03
2006-01-0070
A specific objective of the European Mg-Engine project is to qualify at least two die cast Mg alloys with improved high temperature properties, in addition to satisfactory corrosion resistance, castability and costs. This paper discusses the selection criteria for high temperature alloys leading to four candidate alloys, AJ52A, AJ62A, AE44 and AE35. Tensile-, creep- and fatigue testing of standard die cast test specimens at different temperatures and conditions have led to a very large amount of material property data. Numerous examples are given to underline the potential for these alloys in high temperature automotive applications. The subsequent use of the basic property data in material models for design of automotive components is illustrated.
Technical Paper

Light Weight Engine Construction through Extended and Sustainable Use of Mg-Alloys

2006-04-03
2006-01-0068
Eight partners from Europe and one from North America have joined efforts in a EU-supported project to find new ways for sustainable production of Mg-based engine blocks for cars. The ultimate aim of the work is to reduce vehicle weight, thereby reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from operation of the vehicle. Four new magnesium alloys are considered in the project and an engine block has been series cast - 20 each in two alloys. An extensive mechanical testing program has been initiated to identify in particular the high temperature limits of the four alloys and a significant experimental study of proper bolt materials for joining is being done in parallel. Engine redesign and life cycle analysis has also been completed to secure the future sustainable exploitation of the project results. This paper presents an overview of the work and results obtained until now - 3 months before the ending date of the project.
Technical Paper

Premium Clear Coat at BMW Group

2006-04-03
2006-01-0751
Automotive clear coats have a broad field of requirements to fulfill, e.g. weathering stability, stone chipping, chemical resistance, scratch resistance, and have to show a brilliant surface appearance. Beside this, the paint and repair process for high volume car manufacturing must be fulfilled with respect to costs and the environment. From the development point of view of a car manufacture interactions between these properties and the critical way of understanding and describing the value for the customer is shown. The conclusion of this scenario and a detailed benchmark study of different new clear coats guide to the development of the ‘Next generation’ of powder clear coats.
Technical Paper

Sandwich Structure for Thermoplastic Body-Panels with Class-A Surface by Injection Molding

2006-04-03
2006-01-0131
Especially in horizontal applications of thermoplastic body-panels occurs a conflict between the required thermal stability (generally achieved with short glass fibers) and the high level surface finish as the reinforcements worsen the surface texture. The sandwich-molding procedure for bigger body-panels, developed further at BMW, offers an innovative solution to this problem. Two materials, one with good surface finish properties (material A) and another with glass fiber reinforcement (material B), are coinjected in a single process step. The result is a part with class-A surface (only material A visible at the surface), advanced mechanical and thermal properties. Additionally to an outstanding surface finish the body-panel exhibits small thermal expansion relevant for reduction of gaps to bordering parts.
Technical Paper

Paint Bake Response on the Vehicle

2006-04-03
2006-01-0985
The average weight of a car has increased significantly in recent years due to higher crash requirements and demands in standard equipment. Therefore, BMW has decided to use aluminium for the body front end of the new BMW 5-series. During the paint process, the 6XXX-alloys currently adopted for the body front end exhibit a considerable increase in yield strength in the E-coat dryer. The increase of strength, the so-called paint bake response of 6XXX-alloys, needs to be fully exploited to meet the increasing demand of future passive safety concepts.
Technical Paper

Wash off Resistant 1-Component Structural Adhesives

2006-04-03
2006-01-0975
The application of crash durable structural adhesives in modern cars design, to improve the driving durability, the overall vehicle stiffness, the crash resistance and to make real light weight constructions feasible is significantly gaining in importance. 1-component systems are already introduced in the market and used in automotive industries. Usually the use of these bonds in automotive industries is limited by a relatively low wash off resistance in the pre-treatment tanks of the paint shop. If no additional actions are taken, there is a severe risk of wash off of the adhesives up to the partial loss in functionality. Respectively contamination of the pre-treatment tanks and aftereffects damage the surface of the coated cars. To avoid wash off a thermal process (oven) to pre-gel the adhesive in the flanges of the Body-In-White (BIW)- bodies before entering the pre-treatment utility is necessary. This is a save but cost intensive solution.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Heads for High Power Gasoline Engines - Thermomechanical Fatigue Life Prediction

2006-04-03
2006-01-0541
Increasing demands on engine efficiency and specific power have resulted in progressively higher loadings on internal components of combustion engines. Therefore the durability assessment of such components is increasingly in demand, triggered by both reliability and economic requirements. Within this context the TMF cylinder head simulation process established at BMW is presented in the following article. The numerical model is able to account for thermo-mechanical loading histories. These lead to a transient evolution of the material characteristics during the lifetime due to aging in aluminum alloys. Therefore a viscoplastic constitutive model is coupled with an aging model to handle the change in precipitation structure and the effect on the material properties, especially for non heat-treated secondary aluminum alloys. The local damage evolution is modeled based on the growth of micro cracks.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Process for Virtual Evaluation of the Dimensional Resistance of Interior Parts

2006-04-03
2006-01-1475
The importance of the automotive interior as a characteristic feature in the competition for the goodwill of the customer has increased significantly in recent years. Whilst there are established, more or less efficient CAE processes for the solution of problems in the areas of occupant safety and service strength, until now the implementation of CAE in themes such as dimensional stability, warpage and corrugation1 of plastic parts has been little investigated. The developmental support in this field is predominantly carried out by means of hardware tests. Real plastic components alter their form as a result of internal forces often during the first weeks following production. The process, known as “creep”, can continue over an extended period of time and is exacerbated by high ambient temperatures and additional external loads stemming from installation and post assembly position.
Technical Paper

BMW's Magnesium-Aluminium Composite Crankcase, State-of-the-Art Light Metal Casting and Manufacturing

2006-04-03
2006-01-0069
This paper presents new aspects of the casting and manufacturing of BMWs inline six-cylinder engine. This new spark-ignition engine is the realization of the BMW concept of efficient dynamics at high technological level. For the first time in the history of modern engine design, a water-cooled crankcase is manufactured by magnesium casting for mass production. This extraordinary combination of magnesium and aluminium is a milestone in engine construction and took place at the light-metal foundry at BMW's Landshut plant. This paper gives a close summary about process development, the constructive structure, and the manufacturing and testing processes.
Technical Paper

AJ (Mg-Al-Sr) Alloy Mechanical Properties: From Fatigue to Crack Propagation

2005-04-11
2005-01-0729
In addition to the creep properties, the fatigue properties are essential for the design of a power-train component in Mg which is operated at elevated temperatures. In case of the new BMW I6 composite Mg/Al crankcase using the AJ alloy system, material testing focused on both subjects. The basic mechanical properties were determined from separately die cast samples and also from samples machined out from high-pressure die cast components. Tensile, high cycle fatigue properties, low cycle fatigue and crack propagation properties were established and analyzed within the technical context for power-train applications reflected in the temperature and load levels. The aspects of mean stress influence, notch sensitivity and crack propagation are evaluated to estimate the performances of the AJ62A alloy system.
Technical Paper

AJ (Mg-Al-Sr) Alloy System Used for New Engine Block

2004-03-08
2004-01-0659
AJ alloy is used with a new Aluminum-Magnesium Composite Design, which is an innovative approach to lightweight crankcase technology. The component is manufactured using high pressure die cast process. A wide range of chemical compositions was used to develop a good understanding of the behavior of this alloy system (castability, thermophysical, mechanical, microstructure). The basic mechanical properties were determined from separately die cast samples and also from samples machined out from high pressure die cast components. Tensile, creep, bolt load retention/relaxation and high cycle fatigue properties were established and analyzed using multivariate analysis and statistical approach. This methodology was used to select the optimal chemical composition to match the requirements. The sensitivity of the alloy to heat exposure was investigated for both mechanical properties and microstructure.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Catalysts are Turbulent:Development of Support and Coating

2004-03-08
2004-01-1488
Future catalyst systems need to be highly efficient in a limited packaging space. This normally leads to a design where the flow distribution, in front of the catalyst, is not perfectly uniform. Measurements on the flow test bench show that the implementation of perforated foils for the corrugated and flat foils has the capability to distribute the flow within the channels in the radial direction so that the maximum of the given catalyst surface is of use, even under very poor uniformity indices. Therefore a remarkable reduction in back pressure is measured. Emission results demonstrate cold start improvement due to reduced heat capacity. The use of LS - structured ( Longitudinal structured ) corrugated foils creates a high turbulence level within the single channels. The substrate lights-up earlier and the maximum conversion efficiency is reached more quickly.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of a New Mass Spectrometer Based Measurement System for Fast Online Monitoring of Oil Emission in the Raw Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines

2002-10-21
2002-01-2713
An increasing environmental consciousness as well as the awareness for sustained preservation of natural resources causes new regulations for emissions and great efforts for fuel economy and increasing oil service intervals. For a better understanding of the process generating pollutants, the emissions of every phase of the combustion cycle have to be monitored online. Moreover, it is important to measure the raw exhaust gas during different driving cycles and investigate the influence of different parameters as for example changing engine operating conditions. The new mass spectrometer (MS) based measurement system allows the direct detection of unburned gaseous oil HC without tracers. The gas inlet system enables crank angle resolved monitoring of different raw exhaust gas compounds in the exhaust manifold or directly in the cylinder.
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