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Technical Paper

The Development of Exhaust Surface Temperature Models for 3D CFD Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations Part 2 - Exhaust Acoustic Silencer Configurations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0646
At the rear of the vehicle an end acoustic silencer is attached to the exhaust system. This is primarily to reduce noise emissions for the benefit of passengers and bystanders. Due to the location of the end acoustic silencer conventional thermal protection methods (heat shields) through experimental means can not only be difficult to incorporate but also can be an inefficient and costly experience. Hence simulation methods may improve the development process by introducing methods of optimization in early phase vehicle design. A previous publication (Part 1) described a methodology of improving the surface temperatures prediction of general exhaust configurations. It was found in this initial study that simulation results for silencer configurations exhibited significant discrepancies in comparison to experimental data.
Journal Article

The Development of Turbine Volute Surface Temperature Models for 3D CFD Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations: Part 3: Exhaust Radial Turbine Volute Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0648
Modern exhaust systems contain not only a piping network to transport hot gas from the engine to the atmosphere, but also functional components such as the catalytic converter and turbocharger. The turbocharger is common place in the automotive industry due to their capability to increase the specific power output of reciprocating engines. As the exhaust system is a main heat source for the under body of the vehicle and the turbocharger is located within the engine bay, it is imperative that accurate surface temperatures are achieved. A study by K. Haehndel [1] implemented a 1D fluid stream as a replacement to solving 3D fluid dynamics of the internal exhaust flow. To incorporate the 3D effects of internal fluid flow, augmented Nusselt correlations were used to produce heat transfer coefficients. It was found that the developed correlations for the exhaust system did not adequately represent the heat transfer of the turbocharger.
Journal Article

The Development of Exhaust Surface Temperature Models for 3D CFD Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations Part 1 - General Exhaust Configurations

2013-04-08
2013-01-0879
The thermal prediction of a vehicle under-body environment is of high importance in the design, optimization and management of vehicle power systems. Within the pre-development phase of a vehicle's production process, it is important to understand and determine regions of high thermally induced stress within critical under-body components. Therefore allowing engineers to modify the design or alter component material characteristics before the manufacture of hardware. As the exhaust system is one of the primary heat sources in a vehicle's under-body environment, it is vital to predict the thermal fluctuation of surface temperatures along corresponding exhaust components in order to achieve the correct thermal representation of the overall under-body heat transfer. This paper explores a new method for achieving higher accuracy exhaust surface temperature predictions.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Modeling of Heat Transfer in the SI Engine Exhaust System During Warm-Up

2007-04-16
2007-01-1092
In order to meet the severe emission restrictions imposed by SULEV and EURO V standards the catalytic converter must reach light-off temperature during the first 20 seconds after engine cold start. Thermal losses in the exhaust manifold are driven by the heat transfer of the pulsating and turbulent exhaust flow and affect significantly the warm-up time of the catalyst. In the present paper an investigation concerning the gas-side heat transfer in the exhaust system of a spark ignited (SI) combustion engine with retarded ignition timing and secondary air injection into the exhaust port is reported. Based on this analysis, the warm-up simulation of a one-dimensional flow simulation tool is improved for an evaluation of different exhaust system configurations.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Heads for High Power Gasoline Engines - Thermomechanical Fatigue Life Prediction

2006-04-03
2006-01-0541
Increasing demands on engine efficiency and specific power have resulted in progressively higher loadings on internal components of combustion engines. Therefore the durability assessment of such components is increasingly in demand, triggered by both reliability and economic requirements. Within this context the TMF cylinder head simulation process established at BMW is presented in the following article. The numerical model is able to account for thermo-mechanical loading histories. These lead to a transient evolution of the material characteristics during the lifetime due to aging in aluminum alloys. Therefore a viscoplastic constitutive model is coupled with an aging model to handle the change in precipitation structure and the effect on the material properties, especially for non heat-treated secondary aluminum alloys. The local damage evolution is modeled based on the growth of micro cracks.
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