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Journal Article

The Development of Exhaust Surface Temperature Models for 3D CFD Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations Part 1 - General Exhaust Configurations

The thermal prediction of a vehicle under-body environment is of high importance in the design, optimization and management of vehicle power systems. Within the pre-development phase of a vehicle's production process, it is important to understand and determine regions of high thermally induced stress within critical under-body components. Therefore allowing engineers to modify the design or alter component material characteristics before the manufacture of hardware. As the exhaust system is one of the primary heat sources in a vehicle's under-body environment, it is vital to predict the thermal fluctuation of surface temperatures along corresponding exhaust components in order to achieve the correct thermal representation of the overall under-body heat transfer. This paper explores a new method for achieving higher accuracy exhaust surface temperature predictions.
Technical Paper

Virtual Validation of Assembly Processes with Digital Human Models — Optimizing the Human-Computer Interaction

Today digital 3D human models are widely used to support the development of future products and in planning and designing production systems. However, these virtual models are generally not sufficiently intuitive and configuring accurate and real body postures is very time consuming. Furthermore, additionally using a human model to virtually examine manual assembly operations of a vehicle is currently synonymous with increased user inputs. In most cases, the user is required to have in-depth expertise in the deployed simulation system. In view of the problems described, in terms of human-computer interaction, it is essential to research and identify the requirements for simulation with digital human models. To this end, experienced staff members gathered the requirements which were then evaluated and weighted by the potential user community. Weaknesses of the simulation software will also be detected, permitting optimisation recommendations to be identified.
Journal Article

Virtual Assessment of Occupied Seat Vibration Transmissibility

This paper presents an integrated simulation process which has been performed in order to assess the riding comfort performance of a vehicle seat system virtually. Present methods of seat comfort design rely on the extensive testing of numerous hardware prototypes. In order to overcome the limitations of this expensive and time-consuming process, and to fasten innovation, simulation-based design has to be used to predict the seat comfort performance very early in the seat design process, leading to a drastic reduction in the number of physical prototypes. The accurate prediction of the seat transfer function by numerical simulation requires a complete simulation chain, which takes into account the successive stages determining the final seat behaviour when submitted to vibrations. First the manufacturing stresses inside the cushion, resulting from the trimming process, are computed.
Journal Article

An Approach to Model Sheet Failure After Onset of Localized Necking in Industrial High Strength Steel Stamping and Crash Simulations

In large-scale industrial simulations the numerical prediction of fracture in sheet metal forming operations as well as in crash events is still a challenging task of high social and economic relevance. Among several approaches presented in literature, the authors and their colleagues developed a model which accounts each for three different mechanisms leading finally to fracture in thin sheet metals: the local instability (necking), ductile normal fracture and ductile shear fracture. The focus of this paper is to develop and validate a new approach to improve the predictive capabilities for fracture triggered by localized necking for a wide variety of steel grades. It is well known that after the onset of a local instability additional strain is still necessary to induce fracture. In a numerical simulation using shell elements this post instability strain becomes of increasing importance when the ratio of the characteristic shell element edge length to its thickness decreases.
Journal Article

Mechanical Property Evaluation of Permanent-Mould Cast AM-SC1™ Mg-Alloy

AM-SC1™ is a high temperature Mg alloy that was originally developed as a sand casting alloy for automotive powertrain applications. The alloy has been selected as the engine block material for both the AVL Genios LE and the USCAR lightweight magnesium engine projects. The present work assesses the potential of this alloy for permanent-mould die cast applications. Thermo-physical and mechanical properties of AM-SC1 were determined for material derived from a permanent-mould die casting process. The mechanical properties determined included: tensile, creep, bolt load retention/relaxation and both low and high cycle fatigue. To better assess the creep performance, a comparative analysis of the normalized creep properties was carried out using the Mukherjee-Dorn parameter, which confirmed the high viscoplastic performance of AM-SC1 compared with common creep resistant high pressure die cast (HPDC) Mg-alloys.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Underbody Windnoise Sources on a Production Vehicle using a Lattice Boltzmann Scheme

A computational analysis of underbody windnoise sources on a production automobile at 180 km/h free stream air speed and 0° yaw is presented. Two different underbody geometry configurations were considered for this study. The numerical results have been obtained using the commercial software PowerFLOW. The simulation kernel of this software is based on the numerical scheme known as the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM), combined with a two-equation RNG turbulence model. This scheme accurately captures time-dependent aerodynamic behavior of turbulent flows over complex detailed geometries, including the pressure fluctuations causing wind noise. Comparison of pressure fluctuations levels mapped on a fluid plane below the underbody shows very good correlation between experiment and simulation. Detailed flow analysis was done for both configurations to obtain insight into the transient nature of the flow field in the underbody region.
Technical Paper

A Modern Development Process to Bring Silence Into Interior Components

Comfort and well-being have always been connected with a flawless interior acoustic, free of any background noise or BSR, (buzz, squeak and rattle). BSR noises dominate the interior acoustic and represent one of the main sources for discomfort often causing considerable warranty costs. Traditionally BSR issues have been identified and rectified through extensive hardware testing, which by its nature intensifies toward the end of the car development process. In the following paper the integration of a virtual BSR validation technique in a modern development process by the use of appropriate CAE methods is presented. The goal is to shift, in compliance with the front loading concept, the development activities into the early phase. The approach is illustrated through the example of an instrument panel, from the early concept draft for single components to an assessment of the complete assembly.
Technical Paper

The European Union Mg-Engine Project - Generation of Material Property Data for Four Die Cast Mg-Alloys

A specific objective of the European Mg-Engine project is to qualify at least two die cast Mg alloys with improved high temperature properties, in addition to satisfactory corrosion resistance, castability and costs. This paper discusses the selection criteria for high temperature alloys leading to four candidate alloys, AJ52A, AJ62A, AE44 and AE35. Tensile-, creep- and fatigue testing of standard die cast test specimens at different temperatures and conditions have led to a very large amount of material property data. Numerous examples are given to underline the potential for these alloys in high temperature automotive applications. The subsequent use of the basic property data in material models for design of automotive components is illustrated.
Technical Paper

Light Weight Engine Construction through Extended and Sustainable Use of Mg-Alloys

Eight partners from Europe and one from North America have joined efforts in a EU-supported project to find new ways for sustainable production of Mg-based engine blocks for cars. The ultimate aim of the work is to reduce vehicle weight, thereby reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from operation of the vehicle. Four new magnesium alloys are considered in the project and an engine block has been series cast - 20 each in two alloys. An extensive mechanical testing program has been initiated to identify in particular the high temperature limits of the four alloys and a significant experimental study of proper bolt materials for joining is being done in parallel. Engine redesign and life cycle analysis has also been completed to secure the future sustainable exploitation of the project results. This paper presents an overview of the work and results obtained until now - 3 months before the ending date of the project.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Process for Virtual Evaluation of the Dimensional Resistance of Interior Parts

The importance of the automotive interior as a characteristic feature in the competition for the goodwill of the customer has increased significantly in recent years. Whilst there are established, more or less efficient CAE processes for the solution of problems in the areas of occupant safety and service strength, until now the implementation of CAE in themes such as dimensional stability, warpage and corrugation1 of plastic parts has been little investigated. The developmental support in this field is predominantly carried out by means of hardware tests. Real plastic components alter their form as a result of internal forces often during the first weeks following production. The process, known as “creep”, can continue over an extended period of time and is exacerbated by high ambient temperatures and additional external loads stemming from installation and post assembly position.
Technical Paper

BMW's Magnesium-Aluminium Composite Crankcase, State-of-the-Art Light Metal Casting and Manufacturing

This paper presents new aspects of the casting and manufacturing of BMWs inline six-cylinder engine. This new spark-ignition engine is the realization of the BMW concept of efficient dynamics at high technological level. For the first time in the history of modern engine design, a water-cooled crankcase is manufactured by magnesium casting for mass production. This extraordinary combination of magnesium and aluminium is a milestone in engine construction and took place at the light-metal foundry at BMW's Landshut plant. This paper gives a close summary about process development, the constructive structure, and the manufacturing and testing processes.
Technical Paper

AJ (Mg-Al-Sr) Alloy Mechanical Properties: From Fatigue to Crack Propagation

In addition to the creep properties, the fatigue properties are essential for the design of a power-train component in Mg which is operated at elevated temperatures. In case of the new BMW I6 composite Mg/Al crankcase using the AJ alloy system, material testing focused on both subjects. The basic mechanical properties were determined from separately die cast samples and also from samples machined out from high-pressure die cast components. Tensile, high cycle fatigue properties, low cycle fatigue and crack propagation properties were established and analyzed within the technical context for power-train applications reflected in the temperature and load levels. The aspects of mean stress influence, notch sensitivity and crack propagation are evaluated to estimate the performances of the AJ62A alloy system.
Technical Paper

AJ (Mg-Al-Sr) Alloy System Used for New Engine Block

AJ alloy is used with a new Aluminum-Magnesium Composite Design, which is an innovative approach to lightweight crankcase technology. The component is manufactured using high pressure die cast process. A wide range of chemical compositions was used to develop a good understanding of the behavior of this alloy system (castability, thermophysical, mechanical, microstructure). The basic mechanical properties were determined from separately die cast samples and also from samples machined out from high pressure die cast components. Tensile, creep, bolt load retention/relaxation and high cycle fatigue properties were established and analyzed using multivariate analysis and statistical approach. This methodology was used to select the optimal chemical composition to match the requirements. The sensitivity of the alloy to heat exposure was investigated for both mechanical properties and microstructure.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Catalysts are Turbulent:Development of Support and Coating

Future catalyst systems need to be highly efficient in a limited packaging space. This normally leads to a design where the flow distribution, in front of the catalyst, is not perfectly uniform. Measurements on the flow test bench show that the implementation of perforated foils for the corrugated and flat foils has the capability to distribute the flow within the channels in the radial direction so that the maximum of the given catalyst surface is of use, even under very poor uniformity indices. Therefore a remarkable reduction in back pressure is measured. Emission results demonstrate cold start improvement due to reduced heat capacity. The use of LS - structured ( Longitudinal structured ) corrugated foils creates a high turbulence level within the single channels. The substrate lights-up earlier and the maximum conversion efficiency is reached more quickly.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Complex Movement Sequences in the Product Development of a Car Manufacturer

Cutting development times in car manufacturing means bringing forward the knowledge processes. Simulations based directly on CAD data reduce or replace time-consuming hardware loops significantly and therefore make a significant contribution to this. Ergonomic product design is an area that is challenged as far as the further development of virtual methods is concerned. Simulation of the static and quasi-static positions of passengers inside the car is the current state of the art in ergonomic product design. For this reason, interest is strongly focused on the simulation of complex movement processes within the context of enhancing simulation tools. For the car manufacturer, the manner in which people enter and leave the car is of particular interest. Getting into the car is the customers' first actual contact with it. It may also develop into a serious problem for car drivers, as they get older.
Technical Paper

Continuos Failure Prediction Model for Nonlinear Load Paths in Successive Stamping and Crash Processes

The validity of numerical simulations is still limited by the unknown failure of materials when nonlinear load paths in successive stamping and crash processes occur. Localized necking is the main mechanism for fractures in ductile sheet metal. The classical forming limit curve (FLC) is limited to linear strain paths. To include the effects of nonlinear strain paths a theoretical model for instability (algorithm CRACH) has been used. The algorithm has been developed on the basis of the Marciniak model [8]. The calibration and validation of this approach is done by a set of multistage experiments under static and dynamic strain rates for a mild steel.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Recyclability of Vehicles During the Product Development Phases

In a voluntary agreement, the German automobile industry has undertaken to recover 95 percent by weight of End–of–Life Vehicles in the year 2015. In addition, the European draft directive on „End–of–Life Vehicles” recycling calls for evidence that at least than 85 percent by weight of the materials are suitable for material recycling. It is therefore essential while new vehicles are being developed to be in a position to assess their suitability for dismantling and recycling. An automobile consists of a large number of individual components, each of which must be examined separately before a well–founded statement regarding the overall recycling level can be made. For this purpose the BMW Group has developed its own dismantling software which permits virtual dismantling analysis even during a vehicle's development phase and thus enables suitability for recycling to be determined at the earliest possible time.