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Technical Paper

Measuring Near Zero Automotive Exhaust Emissions - Zero Is a Very Small Precise Number

2010-04-12
2010-01-1301
In the environmentally conscious world we live in, auto manufacturers are under extreme pressure to reduce tailpipe emissions from cars and trucks. The manufacturers have responded by creating clean-burning engines and exhaust treatments that mainly produce CO2 and water vapor along with trace emissions of pollutants such as CO, THC, NOx, and CH4. The trace emissions are regulated by law, and testing must be performed to show that they are below a certain level for the vehicle to be classified as road legal. Modern engine and pollution control technology has moved so quickly toward zero pollutant emissions that the testing technology is no longer able to accurately measure the trace levels of pollutants. Negative emission values are often measured for some pollutants, as shown by results from eight laboratories independently testing the same SULEV automobile.
Technical Paper

Reinforced Light Metals for Automotive Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-1228
Efficiency and dynamic behavior of a vehicle are strongly affected by its weight. Taking into consideration comfort, safety and emissions in modern automobiles, lightweight design is more of a challenge than ever in automotive engineering. Materials development plays an important role against this background, since significant weight decrease is made possible through the substitution of high density materials and more precise adjustment of material parameters to the functional requirements of components. Reinforced light metals, therefore, offer a promising approach due to their high strength to weight ratio. The paper gives an overview on matrix and reinforcement structures suited for the high volume output of the automotive industry. Further analytical and numerical approaches to describe the strengthening effects and the good mechanical characteristics of these composite materials are presented.
Technical Paper

BMW High Precision Fuel Injectionin Conjunction with Twin-Turbo Technology: a Combination for Maximum Dynamic and High Fuel Efficiency

2007-04-16
2007-01-1560
The new inline six cylinder Twin-Turbo gasoline engine forms the pinnacle of BMW's wide range of straight-six power units, developing maximum output of 300hp and a peak torque of 300 lb-ft with a displacement of 3.0 litre. Using two turbochargers in combination with the new BMW High Precision Fuel Injection leads to a responsive build-up of torque and to an impressive development of power over a wide engine speed range. This paper gives a detailed overview of the turbocharger-and the injection system and describes the effect of both systems on power and torque, as well as on fuel consumption and emission. The big advantage of using two small turbochargers is their low moment of inertia, even the slightest movement of the accelerator pedal by the driver's foot serving to immediately build up superior pressure and power. This puts an end to the turbo “gap” previously typical of a turbocharged power unit.
Technical Paper

Transportation Fuels for the Future

2006-10-16
2006-21-0089
This paper analyzes the availability of fossil resources and the projected demand development for transport energy. A continuation of current trends would lead to a gap between fuel supply and demand in 10 to 15 years from now. Based on the 3 political key criteria (security of energy supply, greenhouse gas emission reductions, strengthening of the economy) potential alternative fuels are screened and analyzed according to their contributions towards these political goals. A scenario for the development of future fuels is presented.
Technical Paper

Enhanced VALVETRONIC Technology for Meeting SULEV Emission Requirements

2006-04-03
2006-01-0849
BMW VALVETRONIC technology is able to maintain the most important measures to reduce emissions. The further optimized charge movement created by VALVETRONIC stabilizes the combustion in the catalyst heating mode with extremely retarded ignition timing. When the engine is warm the high residual gas tolerance ensures very low Engine-Out NOx emissions and at the same time a low level of hydrocarbons. The atomization of fuel droplets due to high flow velocity in the valve gap area leads to improved mixture formation and reduced wall wetting. Engine-Out HC emissions in a cold engine are therefore reduced. Combined, the emission measures achieve robust and efficient emission control. In combination with additional after-treatment like secondary air system and catalysts using high cell density VALVETRONIC engines form an excellent base for SULEV emission regulations without neglecting the typical BMW claim of efficient dynamics.
Technical Paper

Potentials of the Spray-Guided BMW DI Combustion System

2006-04-03
2006-01-1265
The spray-guided BMW DI combustion system eliminates the most important disadvantages of the wall-and air-guided 1st generation DI combustion systems. With its central injector position, the spray-guided system provides a stratified mixture at the spark plug and reduces wall wetting significantly. The low spray penetration and high spray stability of the outward-opening piezo injector allow an extension of the stratified engine map to higher engine load and speed. The piezo drive permits an extremely fast opening of the injector needle, thus enabling multiple injections with very short delay times and high flexibility for the calibration strategy to supply a very efficient combustion with low unburnt hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. Compared to a conventional throttled SI engine, the spray-guided system shows a fuel consumption potential of about 20% in the NEDC.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Catalysts are Turbulent:Development of Support and Coating

2004-03-08
2004-01-1488
Future catalyst systems need to be highly efficient in a limited packaging space. This normally leads to a design where the flow distribution, in front of the catalyst, is not perfectly uniform. Measurements on the flow test bench show that the implementation of perforated foils for the corrugated and flat foils has the capability to distribute the flow within the channels in the radial direction so that the maximum of the given catalyst surface is of use, even under very poor uniformity indices. Therefore a remarkable reduction in back pressure is measured. Emission results demonstrate cold start improvement due to reduced heat capacity. The use of LS - structured ( Longitudinal structured ) corrugated foils creates a high turbulence level within the single channels. The substrate lights-up earlier and the maximum conversion efficiency is reached more quickly.
Technical Paper

New Physical and Chemical Models for the CFD Simulation of Exhaust Gas Lines: A Generic Approach

2002-03-04
2002-01-0066
In the near future the effort on the development of exhaust gas treatment systems must be increased to meet the stringent emission requirements. If the relevant physical and chemical models are available, the numerical simulation is an important tool for the design of these systems. This work presents a CFD model that allows to cover the full range of applications in this area. After a detailed presentation of the theoretical background and the modeling strategies results for the simulation of a close-coupled catalyst are shown. The presented model is also applied to the oxidation of nitrogen oxides, to a diesel particle filter and a fuel-cell reformer catalyst.
Technical Paper

New Design of Ultra High Cell Density Metal Substrates

2002-03-04
2002-01-0353
To meet the most stringent emissions standards such as Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (SULEV) in California, substrates with high cell densities and ultra thin foils are needed, mounted in a close-coupled position. A new substrate design has been developed incorporating increased thermal and mechanical load in association with reduced thermal mass and improved heat transfer due to higher cell density. This paper describes the development of the new design using finite element calculation and practical test results from component and engine test benches.
Technical Paper

Research Results and Progress in LeaNOx II -A Co-operation for Lean NOx Abatement

2000-10-16
2000-01-2909
In a consortium of European industrial partners and research institutes, a combination of industrial development and scientific research was organised. The objective was to improve the catalytic NOx conversion for lean burn cars and heavy-duty trucks, taking into account boundary conditions for the fuel consumption. The project lasted for three years. During this period parallel research was conducted in research areas ranging from basic research based on a theoretical approach to full scale emission system development. NOx storage catalysts became a central part of the project. Catalysts were evaluated with respect to resistance towards sulphur poisoning. It was concluded that very low sulphur fuel is a necessity for efficient use of NOx trap technology. Additionally, attempts were made to develop methods for reactivating poisoned catalysts. Methods for short distance mixing were developed for the addition of reducing agent.
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