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Technical Paper

Measuring Near Zero Automotive Exhaust Emissions - Zero Is a Very Small Precise Number

In the environmentally conscious world we live in, auto manufacturers are under extreme pressure to reduce tailpipe emissions from cars and trucks. The manufacturers have responded by creating clean-burning engines and exhaust treatments that mainly produce CO2 and water vapor along with trace emissions of pollutants such as CO, THC, NOx, and CH4. The trace emissions are regulated by law, and testing must be performed to show that they are below a certain level for the vehicle to be classified as road legal. Modern engine and pollution control technology has moved so quickly toward zero pollutant emissions that the testing technology is no longer able to accurately measure the trace levels of pollutants. Negative emission values are often measured for some pollutants, as shown by results from eight laboratories independently testing the same SULEV automobile.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Underbody Pressure Distribution of a Series Vehicle on the Road and in the Wind Tunnel

Underbody aerodynamics has become increasingly important over the last three decades because of its vital contribution to improving a vehicle's overall performance. This was the motivation for the research conducted by BMW Aerodynamics, concerning the determination of the overall pressure distribution on the underbody of a series-production vehicle. Static pressure measurements have been taken under various test conditions. Real on-road tests were carried out as well as wind tunnel experiments under application of different road simulation techniques. The analyzed vehicle configurations include wheel rim-tire and body modifications. The results presented include surface pressure data, drag and lift coefficients, ride heights, pitch and roll angles. The acquired data is used to examine the underbody flow topology and determine how the diverse attempts to represent the real on-road conditions affect its pressure distribution.
Journal Article

Mechanical Property Evaluation of Permanent-Mould Cast AM-SC1™ Mg-Alloy

AM-SC1™ is a high temperature Mg alloy that was originally developed as a sand casting alloy for automotive powertrain applications. The alloy has been selected as the engine block material for both the AVL Genios LE and the USCAR lightweight magnesium engine projects. The present work assesses the potential of this alloy for permanent-mould die cast applications. Thermo-physical and mechanical properties of AM-SC1 were determined for material derived from a permanent-mould die casting process. The mechanical properties determined included: tensile, creep, bolt load retention/relaxation and both low and high cycle fatigue. To better assess the creep performance, a comparative analysis of the normalized creep properties was carried out using the Mukherjee-Dorn parameter, which confirmed the high viscoplastic performance of AM-SC1 compared with common creep resistant high pressure die cast (HPDC) Mg-alloys.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Underbody Windnoise Sources on a Production Vehicle using a Lattice Boltzmann Scheme

A computational analysis of underbody windnoise sources on a production automobile at 180 km/h free stream air speed and 0° yaw is presented. Two different underbody geometry configurations were considered for this study. The numerical results have been obtained using the commercial software PowerFLOW. The simulation kernel of this software is based on the numerical scheme known as the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM), combined with a two-equation RNG turbulence model. This scheme accurately captures time-dependent aerodynamic behavior of turbulent flows over complex detailed geometries, including the pressure fluctuations causing wind noise. Comparison of pressure fluctuations levels mapped on a fluid plane below the underbody shows very good correlation between experiment and simulation. Detailed flow analysis was done for both configurations to obtain insight into the transient nature of the flow field in the underbody region.
Technical Paper

Predicting Overall Seating Discomfort Based on Body Area Ratings

For car manufacturers, seating comfort is becoming more and more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. There is a simultaneous demand for shorter development times and more comfortable seats. Comfort in automobile seats is a multi-dimensional and complex problem. Many current sophisticated measuring tools were consulted, but it is unclear on which factors one should concentrate attention when measuring comfort. The goal of this paper is to find a model in order to predict the overall seating discomfort based on body area ratings. Besides micro climate, the pressure distribution appears to be the most objective measure comprising with the clearest association with the subjective ratings. Therefore an analysis with three different test series was designed, allowing the variation of pressure on the seat surface. In parallel the subjects were asked to judge the local and the overall sensation.
Technical Paper

Needs and Possibilities for the Correction of Drag and Lift Wheel Forces which have been Derived by Integrating its Static Pressure Distribution

Knowing the wheel forces on a vehicle under various circumstances and configurations is essential for its aerodynamic development. This becomes crucial when dealing with a racing car. This was the driving force for the initial research conducted in the BMW Aerodynamics Department [1] concerning the aerodynamic forces of an isolated 1:2 racing wheel. The latter were determined for various arrangements with the use of a system equipped with pressure transducers distributed on the wheel surface. While the pressure wheel is adequate for revealing flow structures surrounding it as well as highlighting its physics, it is nevertheless insufficient for the prediction of the wheel forces with high accuracy. As will be shown, this is mainly the consequence of the absent contribution of skin friction, the mathematical method engaged in post–processing and the restricted number of pressure transducers.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Catalysts are Turbulent:Development of Support and Coating

Future catalyst systems need to be highly efficient in a limited packaging space. This normally leads to a design where the flow distribution, in front of the catalyst, is not perfectly uniform. Measurements on the flow test bench show that the implementation of perforated foils for the corrugated and flat foils has the capability to distribute the flow within the channels in the radial direction so that the maximum of the given catalyst surface is of use, even under very poor uniformity indices. Therefore a remarkable reduction in back pressure is measured. Emission results demonstrate cold start improvement due to reduced heat capacity. The use of LS - structured ( Longitudinal structured ) corrugated foils creates a high turbulence level within the single channels. The substrate lights-up earlier and the maximum conversion efficiency is reached more quickly.