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Technical Paper

Glare Investigations and Safety Research on Digital Light Technologies

2019-04-02
2019-01-0849
Digitalization has reached lighting. New lighting devices are able to provide additional information for the driver by projecting symbols and informations on the road. In a study the influence of additional lighting devices on safety are investigated. Concerns about glare and distractions have been adressed and an experimental setup adressing glare will be discussed. The results of an investigation whether those new devices are impacting glare effects will be presented.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Its Contribution to Evaluate Highly Automated Driving Functions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0140
A key criterion for launching autonomous vehicles on real roads is the knowledge of their capability to ensure traffic safety. In contrast to ADAS, deriving this measure of safety is difficult to achieve as the functional scope of an autonomous driving function exceeds by far the one of ADAS. As a consequence, real-world testing solely is not sufficient enough to cover the required test volume. This assessment problem imposes new requirements on a valid test concept for automated driving. A possible solution represents simulation by enabling it to generate reliable test kilometers. As a first step, we discuss in this paper the feasibility of simulation frameworks to re-simulate a real-world test in certain scenarios. We will demonstrate that even with ground truth information of the vehicle odometry and corresponding environment model an acceptable accordance of functional behavior is not guaranteed.
Technical Paper

Student Concept Vehicle: Development and Usability of an Innovative Holographic User Interface Concept and a Novel Parking Assistance System Concept

2019-04-02
2019-01-0396
The Deep Orange program is a concept vehicle development program focused on providing hands-on experience in design, engineering, prototyping and production planning as part of students’ two-year MS graduate education. Throughout this project, the team was challenged to create innovative concepts during the ideation phase as part of building the running vehicle. This paper describes the usability studies performed on two of the vehicle concepts that require driver interaction. One concept is a human machine interface (HMI) that uses a holographic companion that can act as a concierge for all functions of the vehicle. After creating a prototype using existing technologies and developing a user interface controlled by hand gestures, a usability study was completed with older adults. The results suggest the input method was not intuitive. Participants demonstrated better performance with tasks using discrete hand motions in comparison to those that required continuous motions.
Technical Paper

Properties and Limitation of an Oxide Coated Aluminum Brake Rotor

2018-10-05
2018-01-1877
The electrification of the powertrain and the thereto related recuperation of the electric engine saves the energy in the battery and thus reduces the thermally dissipated brake energy, which leads to lower brake rotor temperatures compared to combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). These new conditions enable to reconsider brake disc concepts. Including lightweight design in heavy battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and the increasingly reliant corrosion resistance of brake rotors, Aluminum is a promising approach for new brake disc concepts. In the past, Aluminum brake disc concepts have already been deployed. For instance Aluminum Metal-Matrix Composite (Al-MMC) concepts in the Lotus Elise S1 and on the rear axle of the Volvo V40 [1]. The presented concept is a different approach and separates the friction system from the bulk Aluminum brake disc, achieved by coating of the friction rings.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the Measurement Layout for Brake Particle Emissions

2018-10-05
2018-01-1885
Non-exhaust emissions in general and brake particle emissions in particular have become very relevant during the last years. Even if many investigations and efforts are under progress, no common test standards exist so far. Many mechanisms and possible impacts are not fully understood either. Hence, the authors continued their investigations by using an already refined and proved test setup, which is the base for further characterizations and enhancements. The presented studies include the characterization of three different friction couples (using the same brake system) for two different test cycles (namely a modified AK Master and a WLTP) in terms of particle number concentration. Additionally, the major differences of the modified AK Master and the WLTP are investigated and analyzed. Finally, results of particle mass characterizations introduced. A brief summary and some conclusions are presented in the final chapter.
Technical Paper

Methodical Selection of Sustainable Fuels for High Performance Racing Engines

2018-09-10
2018-01-1749
As the importance of sustainability increases and dominates the powertrain development within the automotive sector, this issue has to be addressed in motorsports as well. The development of sustainable high-performance fuels defined for the use in motorsports offers technical and environmental potential with the possibility to increase the sustainability of motorsports at the same or even a better performance level. At the moment race cars are predominantly powered by fossil fuels. However due to the emerging shift regarding the focus of the regulations towards high efficient powertrains during the last years the further development of the used fuels gained in importance. Moreover during the last decades a huge variety of sustainable fuels emerged that offer a range of different characteristics and that are produced based on waste materials or carbon dioxide.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Flame Propagation Description in Quasi-Dimensional Spark Ignition Engine Modeling

2018-09-10
2018-01-1655
The engine development process has been enhanced significantly by virtual engineering methods during the last decades. In terms of in-cylinder flow field, charge flow and combustion modelling, 3D-CFD (three dimensional) simulations enable detailed analysis and extended investigations in order to gain additional knowledge about design parameters. However, the computational time of the 3D-CFD is an obvious drawback that prevents a reasonable application for extensive analysis with varying speed, load and transient conditions. State-of-the-art 0D (zero dimensional) approaches close the gap between the demand of high computational efficiency and a satisfying accordance with experimental data. Recent improvements of phenomenological combustion approaches for gasoline spark ignition engines deal with the consideration of detailed flow parameters, the accuracy of the laminar flame speed calculation and the prediction of the knock limit.
Technical Paper

From Theory to Three-Dimensional Finite Element Models: An Innovative Method for Validation

2018-06-13
2018-01-1536
As a key part of numerical analysis, the modeling process has a tremendous influence on the quality of the results. While there is general awareness concerning uncertainties that arise during modeling, their quantity and sensitivity rarely are known. Hence, modeling quickly can become inaccurate and inefficient. The scope of the present paper is to innovate predictive modeling processes concerning the dynamics of real complex structures by means of linear modal analysis with the finite element method (FEM). The aim is to offer a transparent design catalog relating specific uncertainties to each model component in order to achieve error prevention for engineers dealing with comparable systems. A complex system is simplified and investigated for different levels of detail. Only after the model uncertainties for one level of detail are obtained, the next level of complexity is approached.
Technical Paper

Modeling of HVAC Noise in a Simplified Car Model

2018-06-13
2018-01-1522
To assure high comfort for vehicle passengers, the interior noise has to be designed to be low in volume as well as in a pleasant way. Vehicle’s HVAC (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning) noise becomes increasingly audible when the main sound sources are acoustically optimized. Thus, the Sound Quality of HVAC noise needs to be evaluated early in the development process. For assessing the Sound Quality of HVAC noise, suitable evaluation criteria as well as the knowledge of the acoustics of the new HVAC system are required. Suitable evaluation criteria were identified using listening tests. In a second step HVAC noise was investigated in different environments: HVAC as a component, HVAC as a system (including air ducts and vents) and HVAC system integrated in a simplified car model. The model was designed acoustically similar to a series vehicle. Thus, the size as well as the interior paneling of a series vehicle was approximated by using sound-absorbing and -reflecting material.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Trim Component and Reduction of the Road Noise Transmission Based on Finite Element Methods

2018-06-13
2018-01-1547
The acoustic trim components play an essential role in NVH behavior by reducing both the structure borne and airborne noise transmission while participating to the absorption inside the car. Over the past years, the interest for numerical solutions to predict the noise transmission through trim packages has grown, leading to the development of dedicated CAE tools. The incrementally restrictive weight and space constraints force today CAE engineers to seek for optimized trim package solution. This paper presents a two-steps process which aims to reduce the structure borne road noise due to floor panel using a coupled simulation with MSC NASTRAN and Actran. The embossment of the supporting steel structure, the material properties of porous layers and the thickness of visco-elastic patches are the design variables of the optimization process.
Technical Paper

Frequency and Temperature Dependent Stiffness and Damping Properties of Reduced Viscoelastic Structures Using Component Mode Synthesis (CMS)

2018-06-13
2018-01-1498
Model Order Reduction (MOR) methods such as Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) have been used in order to simulate large linear dynamic systems for many years and have reached a considerable level of saturation. These reduction methods have many advantages such as minimizing computational costs but also have restrictions. One of their disadvantages is that material damping characteristics can only be defined in form of Rayleigh damping. Another disadvantage is that the reduced order model can only represent one state of the structure determined in the generation process of the reduced matrices. In this paper we present a way to consider material damping in reduced matrices that contain one or more materials having different damping characteristics without the disadvantages of using Rayleigh damping.
Technical Paper

A Fluid-Structure Interaction Scheme for Prediction of Flow-Induced Low Frequency Booming Noise

2018-06-13
2018-01-1521
The analysis of the acoustic behavior of flow fields has gained importance in recent years, especially in the automotive industry. The comfort of the driver is heavily influenced by the noise levels and characteristics, especially during long distance drives. Simulation tools can help to analyze the acoustic properties of a car at an early stage of the development process. This work focuses on the low-frequency sound effects, which can be a significant noise component under certain operating conditions. As a first step in the fluid-structure interaction workflow, the flow around a series-production vehicle is simulated, including passenger cabin and underhood flow. The complexity of this model poses extensive demands on the simulation software, concerning meshing, turbulence modeling and level of parallelism. We conducted a transient simulation of the compressible fluid flow, using a hybrid RANS/LES approach.
Technical Paper

Ideas for Next Lighting Generations in Digitalization and Autonomous Driving

2018-04-03
2018-01-1038
Digitalization in Industry and Society is progressing quickly. Up to now, just 5 static and standard lighting applications have been dominating in the U.S. (Low/High Beam, Daytime Running Lamp Turn Indicator & Position Lamp). The global interest in standardization of light driven messages from autonomous vehicles to other traffic participants has opened new research needs and research findings. In Europe, GTB has established a working group dedicated to this topic. The article will discuss the possible contribution of signalling and lighting functions to Digitalization and Autonomous driving by explaining the first elements of functional definition and research results.
Technical Paper

Motion Cueing Algorithm for a 9 DoF Driving Simulator: MPC with Linearized Actuator Constraints

2018-04-03
2018-01-0570
In times when automated driving is becoming increasingly relevant, dynamic simulators present an appropriate simulation environment to faithfully reproduce driving scenarios. A realistic replication of driving dynamics is an important criterion to immerse persons in the virtual environments provided by the simulator. Motion Cueing Algorithms (MCAs) compute the simulator’s control input, based on the motions of the simulated vehicle. The technical restrictions of the simulator’s actuators form the main limitation in the execution of these input commands. Typical dynamic simulators consist of a hexapod with six degrees of freedom (DoF) to reproduce the vehicle motion in all dimensions. Since its workspace dimensions are limited, significant improvements in motion capabilities can be achieved by expanding the simulator with redundant DoF by means of additional actuators.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Sensitivity of Hybrid RANS-LES Simulations to Mesh Resolution, Numerical Schemes and Turbulence Modelling within an Industrial CFD Process

2018-04-03
2018-01-0709
A wide-ranging investigation into the sensitivity of the hybrid RANS-LES based OpenFOAM CFD process at Audi was undertaken. For a range of cars (A1, TT, Q3 & A4) the influence of the computational grid resolution, turbulence model formulation and spatial & temporal discretization is assessed. It is shown that SnappyHexMesh, the Cartesian-prismatic built-in OpenFOAM mesher is unable to generate low y+ grids of sufficient quality for the production Audi car geometries. For high y+ grids there was not a consistent trend of additional refinement leading to improved correlation between CFD and experimental data. Similar conclusions were found for the turbulence models and numerical schemes, where consistent improvements over the baseline setup for all aerodynamic force coefficients were in general not possible. The A1 vehicle exhibited the greatest sensitivity to methodology changes, with the TT showing the least sensitivity.
Technical Paper

Conceptualization and Implementation of a Scalable Powertrain, Modular Energy Storage and an Alternative Cooling System on a Student Concept Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1185
The Deep Orange program immerses automotive engineering students into the world of an OEM as part of their 2-year graduate education. In support of developing the program’s seventh vehicle concept, the students studied the sponsoring brand essence, conducted market research, and made a heuristic assessment of competitor vehicles. The upfront research lead to the definition of target customers and setting vehicle level targets that were broken down into requirements to develop various vehicle sub-systems. The powertrain team was challenged to develop a scalable propulsion concept enabled by a common vehicle architecture that allowed future customers to select (at the point of purchase) among various levels of electrification best suiting their needs and personal desires. Four different configurations were identified and developed: all-electric, two plug-in hybrid electric configurations, and an internal combustion engine only.
Technical Paper

Reliability of Engineering Methods in Heavy-Vehicle Aerodynamics

2017-08-25
2017-01-7001
The improved performance of heavy-duty vehicles as transport carriers is essential for economic reasons and to fulfil new emission standards in Europe. A key parameter is the aerodynamic vehicle drag. An enormous potential still exists for fuel saving and reducing exhaust emission by aerodynamic optimisation. Engineering methods are required for developments in vehicle aerodynamics. To assess the reliability of the most common experimental testing and numerical simulation methods in the industrial design process is the objective of this article. Road tests have been performed to provide realistic results, which are compared to the results obtained by scale-model wind tunnel experiments and time-averaged computational fluid dynamics (CFD). These engineering methods are evaluated regarding their deployment in the industrial development process. The investigations focus on the separated flow region behind the vehicle rear end.
Technical Paper

Technology from Highly Automated Driving to Improve Active Pedestrian Protection Systems

2017-03-28
2017-01-1409
Highly Automated Driving (HAD) opens up new middle-term perspectives in mobility and is currently one of the main goals in the development of future vehicles. The focus is the implementation of automated driving functions for structured environments, such as on the motorway. To achieve this goal, vehicles are equipped with additional technology. This technology should not only be used for a limited number of use cases. It should also be used to improve Active Safety Systems during normal non-automated driving. In the first approach we investigate the usage of machine learning for an autonomous emergency braking system (AEB) for the active pedestrian protection safety. The idea is to use knowledge of accidents directly for the function design. Future vehicles could be able to record detailed information about an accident. If enough data from critical situations recorded by vehicles is available, it is conceivable to use it to learn the function design.
Technical Paper

Influence Parameters on Headlamp Performance in Rating Systems and Reality

2017-03-28
2017-01-1359
Headlamp performance has changed in the last 20 years significantly. Sealed beam lamps were replaced by VHAD, VOR and VOL types, but still the optical input in terms of tungsten filament based luminous flux remained more stable. With Xenon discharge lamps and now LED the performance of a headlamp may vary strongly and thus the optical performance. Various rating systems have been developed to assess the quality of lamps and light distribution, some based on laboratory based data, some based on static or dynamic street test drives with online measurements and assessments. Basic interest is to understand the performance of the light for a real driver. This article will discuss the influence parameters on achieving a repeatable and precise rating as well as the outer influence that creates glare and varying seeing distance. Mostly mechanical headlamp and car conditioning will influence the result as well as human factors like aiming precision and aiming tolerances.
Journal Article

Critical Assessment of Some Popular Scale-Resolving Turbulence Models for Vehicle Aerodynamics

2017-03-28
2017-01-1532
Some widely-used scale-resolving turbulence models are comparatively assessed in simulating the aerodynamic behavior of a full-scale AUDI-A1 car configuration. The presently considered hybrid RANS/LES (RANS – Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes; LES – Large-Eddy Simulation) models include the well-known DDES (Delayed Detached-Eddy Simulation) scheme and two further variable-resolution formulations denoted by PANS (Partially-Averaged Navier-Stokes; Basara, 2011) and VLES (Very LES; Chang et al., 2014). Whereas the DDES method represents the originally proposed formulation based on the one-equation Spalart-Almaras model (Spalart et al. 2006), whose RANS/LES interface position is directly correlated to the underlying grid resolution, the other two models represent ‘true’ seamless formulations, providing a smooth transition from Unsteady RANS to LES in terms of a dynamic “resolution parameter” variation.
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