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Technical Paper

Potentials and Challenges of a Brake Particle Emission Collecting System

Brake particle emissions as a part of non-exhaust emissions are becoming more and more relevant, various international research activities can be stated. Also from the legislation side, first hints are given in regards of possible regulations. One possible approach for the reduction of brake particle emissions deals with the collection of those particles close to the foundation brake. The presented paper will follow such an approach and give some insights. In a first step, the technical layout is described for bench and vehicle testing. While for bench testing a PMP-like style of the setup could be chosen, the vehicle test setup is oriented on conventional wheel dust measurements. Hence, presented results of laboratory testing are dealing with PN and PM measurements. Also the impact on particle size distribution is discussed. It can be stated, that the particle collecting system is able to improve PN and PM emissions. Additionally, ultra-fine particles are almost eliminated.
Technical Paper

Using Statistical Energy Analysis to Optimize Sound Package for Realistic Load Cases

The statistical energy analysis (SEA) is widely used to support the development of the sound package of cars. This paper will present the preparation of a model designed to investigate the sound package of the new Audi A3 and associated correlation against measurements. Special care was given during the creation of the model on the representation of the structure to enable the analysis of structure borne energy flow on top of the classical airborne analysis usually done with SEA. The sound package was also detailed in the model to allow further optimization and analysis of its performance. Two real life load cases will be presented to validate the model with measurements. First, the dominating powertrain and a second load case with dominating rolling noise. An analysis of the contribution of the different source components and a way to diagnose the weak paths of the vehicle will be presented. The focus of this investigation is the application of optimally adjusted treatment.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Safety Improvements by Lighting for Pedestrians and Cyclists

The paper will describe actual investigations on safety improvements by new lighting functions. Especially the new chance of projections on the road surface either by simple reflector technology or by modern signature and pattern projection will be investigated. Different prototype patterns will be checked by a set of new parameters, e.g. reaction time to signals, clear understanding, minimum and optimum visual contrasts. The results show that high contrasts and dynamic effects are most effective.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Headlamp and Car Body Tolerances in Real Life

Good lighting is crucial for safe driving at night. Unfortunately, many parameters are contributing to the final result of the individual tolerances of car body, dynamics and headlamp: the resulting aim. The paper will analyze individual tolerance contributors from car body parameters like load, tire pressure, suspension as well as temperature parameters of chassis and plastic parts. The investigation shows that the headlight aim can fluctuate in a worst case scenario more than ±0.3°.
Technical Paper

Glare Investigations and Safety Research on Digital Light Technologies

New human-machine interfaces are the direct result of digitalization. So also in lighting, new constellations have to be taken into account when looking to the possibilities of giving additional informations to the driver. Lighting and furthermore information given by light is a clear preference during nighttime driving. The global interest in standardization of light driven messages from autonomous vehicles to other traffic participants has opened new research needs in order to prepare full view on such new human-machine interface. In Europe, GTB (Group de Travail de Bruxelles) has established a working group dedicated to this topic. In order to provide a complete picture of the effects of digital light, the question of additional glare contribution by digital informations, i.e. extra projected light in form of patterns, symbols or areas was addressed in this research study. This article will show the investigations on wet and dry road glare while driving with digital informations.
Technical Paper

Modeling of HVAC Noise in a Simplified Car Model

To assure high comfort for vehicle passengers, the interior noise has to be designed to be low in volume as well as in a pleasant way. Vehicle’s HVAC (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning) noise becomes increasingly audible when the main sound sources are acoustically optimized. Thus, the Sound Quality of HVAC noise needs to be evaluated early in the development process. For assessing the Sound Quality of HVAC noise, suitable evaluation criteria as well as the knowledge of the acoustics of the new HVAC system are required. Suitable evaluation criteria were identified using listening tests. In a second step HVAC noise was investigated in different environments: HVAC as a component, HVAC as a system (including air ducts and vents) and HVAC system integrated in a simplified car model. The model was designed acoustically similar to a series vehicle. Thus, the size as well as the interior paneling of a series vehicle was approximated by using sound-absorbing and -reflecting material.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Trim Component and Reduction of the Road Noise Transmission Based on Finite Element Methods

The acoustic trim components play an essential role in NVH behavior by reducing both the structure borne and airborne noise transmission while participating to the absorption inside the car. Over the past years, the interest for numerical solutions to predict the noise transmission through trim packages has grown, leading to the development of dedicated CAE tools. The incrementally restrictive weight and space constraints force today CAE engineers to seek for optimized trim package solution. This paper presents a two-steps process which aims to reduce the structure borne road noise due to floor panel using a coupled simulation with MSC NASTRAN and Actran. The embossment of the supporting steel structure, the material properties of porous layers and the thickness of visco-elastic patches are the design variables of the optimization process.
Technical Paper

Conceptualization and Implementation of a Scalable Powertrain, Modular Energy Storage and an Alternative Cooling System on a Student Concept Vehicle

The Deep Orange program immerses automotive engineering students into the world of an OEM as part of their 2-year graduate education. In support of developing the program’s seventh vehicle concept, the students studied the sponsoring brand essence, conducted market research, and made a heuristic assessment of competitor vehicles. The upfront research lead to the definition of target customers and setting vehicle level targets that were broken down into requirements to develop various vehicle sub-systems. The powertrain team was challenged to develop a scalable propulsion concept enabled by a common vehicle architecture that allowed future customers to select (at the point of purchase) among various levels of electrification best suiting their needs and personal desires. Four different configurations were identified and developed: all-electric, two plug-in hybrid electric configurations, and an internal combustion engine only.
Technical Paper

Ideas for Next Lighting Generations in Digitalization and Autonomous Driving

Digitalization in Industry and Society is progressing quickly. Up to now, just 5 static and standard lighting applications have been dominating in the U.S. (Low/High Beam, Daytime Running Lamp Turn Indicator & Position Lamp). The global interest in standardization of light driven messages from autonomous vehicles to other traffic participants has opened new research needs and research findings. In Europe, GTB has established a working group dedicated to this topic. The article will discuss the possible contribution of signalling and lighting functions to Digitalization and Autonomous driving by explaining the first elements of functional definition and research results.
Technical Paper

Motion Cueing Algorithm for a 9 DoF Driving Simulator: MPC with Linearized Actuator Constraints

In times when automated driving is becoming increasingly relevant, dynamic simulators present an appropriate simulation environment to faithfully reproduce driving scenarios. A realistic replication of driving dynamics is an important criterion to immerse persons in the virtual environments provided by the simulator. Motion Cueing Algorithms (MCAs) compute the simulator’s control input, based on the motions of the simulated vehicle. The technical restrictions of the simulator’s actuators form the main limitation in the execution of these input commands. Typical dynamic simulators consist of a hexapod with six degrees of freedom (DoF) to reproduce the vehicle motion in all dimensions. Since its workspace dimensions are limited, significant improvements in motion capabilities can be achieved by expanding the simulator with redundant DoF by means of additional actuators.
Journal Article

Brake Particle Emission Measurements - Testing Method and Results

Brake Particle Emission (BPE) is gaining considerable importance for the friction brake and automotive industry. So far no common approach or legislation for BPE characterization exists although many activities in this field have been started during the last years. Taking this into account, the authors carried out a joint measurement campaign to investigate a new approach regarding the sampling location using a brake dynamometer. During preliminary investigations the influence of the cooling air quality has been examined and a sampling point position validation has been carried out. At first the stabilization behavior for repeated test cycles and variations of volumetric air flow rates are analyzed. As a next step the role of volatile particle emissions is determined. Subsequently, the influence of load history and friction power is studied. Finally results in terms of the role of high temperature applications are presented.
Journal Article

New Motion Cueing Algorithm for Improved Evaluation of Vehicle Dynamics on a Driving Simulator

In recent years, driving simulators have become a valuable tool in the automotive design and testing process. Yet, in the field of vehicle dynamics, most decisions are still based on test drives in real cars. One reason for this situation can be found in the fact that many driving simulators do not allow the driver to evaluate the handling qualities of a simulated vehicle. In a driving simulator, the motion cueing algorithm tries to represent the vehicle motion within the constrained motion envelope of the motion platform. By nature, this process leads to so called false cues where the motion of the platform is not in phase or moving in a different direction with respect to the vehicle motion. In a driving simulator with classical filter-based motion cueing, false cues make it considerably more difficult for the driver to rate vehicle dynamics.
Technical Paper

Designing Sound for Quiet Cars

The quiet nature of hybrid and electric vehicles has triggered developments in research, vehicle manufacturing and legal requirements. Currently, three countries require fitting an Approaching Vehicle Alerting System (AVAS) to every new car capable of driving without a combustion engine. Various other geographical areas and groups are in the process of specifying new legal requirements. In this paper, the design challenges in the on-going process of designing the sound for quiet cars are discussed. A proposal is issued on how to achieve the optimum combination of safety, environmental noise, subjective sound character and technical realisation in an iterative sound design process. The proposed sound consists of two layers: the first layer contains tonal components with their pitch rising along with vehicle speed in order to ensure recognisability and an indication of speed.

Aerodynamics of Road Vehicles, Fifth Edition

The detailed presentation of fundamental aerodynamics principles that influence and improve vehicle design have made Aerodynamics of Road Vehicles the engineer’s “source” for information. This fifth edition features updated and expanded information beyond that which was presented in previous releases. Completely new content covers lateral stability, safety and comfort, wind noise, high performance vehicles, helmets, engine cooling, and computational fluid dynamics.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation of Dampening Dynamic Profiles for the Application in Transient Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations

As computational methodologies become more integrated into industrial vehicle pre-development processes the potential for high transient vehicle thermal simulations is evident. This can also been seen in conjunction with the strong rise in computing power, which ultimately has supported many automotive manufactures in attempting non-steady simulation conditions. The following investigation aims at exploring an efficient means of utilizing the new rise in computing resources by resolving high time-dependent boundary conditions through a series of averaging methodologies. Through understanding the sensitivities associated with dynamic component temperature changes, optimised boundary conditions can be implemented to dampen irrelevant input frequencies whilst maintaining thermally critical velocity gradients.
Journal Article

An Innovative Approach to Race Track Simulations for Vehicle Thermal Management

Within the pre-development phase of a vehicle validation process, the role of computational simulation is becoming increasingly prominent in efforts to ensure thermal safety. This gain in popularity has resulted from the cost and time advantages that simulation has compared to experimental testing. Additionally many of these early concepts cannot be validated through experimental means due to the lack of hardware, and must be evaluated via numerical methods. The Race Track Simulation (RTS) can be considered as the final frontier for vehicle thermal management techniques, and to date no coherent method has been published which provides an efficient means of numerically modeling the temperature behavior of components without the dependency on statistical experimental data.
Technical Paper

A Combined Computational-Experimental Approach for Modelling of Coupled Vibro-Acoustic Problems

Over the past 30 years, the computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools have been applied extensively in the automotive industry. In order to accelerate time-to-market while coping with legal limits that have become increasingly restrictive over the last decades, CAE has become an indispensable tool covering all major fields in a modern automotive product design process. However, when tackling complex real-life engineering problems, the computational models might become rather involved and thus less efficient. Therefore, the overall trend in the automotive industry is currently heading towards combined approaches, which allow the best of the both worlds, namely the experimental measurement and numerical simulation, to be merged into one integrated scheme. In this paper, the so-called patch transfer function (PTF) approach is adopted to solve coupled vibro-acoustic problems. In the PTF scheme, the interfaces between fluid and structure are discretised in terms of patches.
Journal Article

Psychoacoustic Requirements for Warning Sounds of Quiet Cars

According to upcoming legislative regulations in certain countries, electric and hybrid-electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will have to be equipped with devices to compensate for the lack of engine noise needed to warn pedestrians against the vehicles. This leads to the question of appropriate sound design which has to meet specific psychoacoustic requirements. The present paper focuses on auditory features of warning sounds to enhance pedestrians' safety with a major focus on the detectability of the exterior noise of the vehicle in an ambient noise. For the evaluation of detectability, the psychoacoustic model developed by Kerber and Fastl will be introduced allowing for the prediction of masked thresholds of the approaching vehicle. The instrumental assessment yields estimates of the distance of an approaching vehicle at the point it becomes audible to the pedestrians.
Journal Article

Development of a Full-Vehicle Hybrid-Simulation Test using Hybrid System Response Convergence (HSRC)

Hybrid vehicle simulation methods combine physical test articles (vehicles, suspensions, etc.) with complementary virtual vehicle components and virtual road and driver inputs to simulate the actual vehicle operating environment. Using appropriate components, hybrid simulation offers the possibility to develop more accurate physical tests earlier, and at lower cost, than possible with conventional test methods. MTS Systems has developed Hybrid System Response Convergence (HSRC), a hybrid simulation method that can utilize existing durability test systems and detailed non-real-time virtual component models to create an accurate full-vehicle simulation test without requiring road load data acquisition. MTS Systems and Audi AG have recently completed a joint evaluation project for the HSRC hybrid simulation method using an MTS 329 road simulator at the Audi facility in Ingolstadt, Germany.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Performance Assessment of BMW Validation Models using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Aerodynamic performance assessment of automotive shapes is typically performed in wind tunnels. However, with the rapid progress in computer hardware technology and the maturity and accuracy of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software packages, evaluation of the production-level automotive shapes using a digital process has become a reality. As the time to market shrinks, automakers are adopting a digital design process for vehicle development. This has elevated the accuracy requirements on the flow simulation software, so that it can be used effectively in the production environment. Evaluation of aerodynamic performance covers prediction of the aerodynamic coefficients such as drag, lift, side force and also lift balance between the front and rear axle. Drag prediction accuracy is important for meeting fuel efficiency targets, prediction of front and rear lifts as well as side force and yawing moment are crucial for high speed handling.