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Technical Paper

Full Body Car Analysis in the Time and Frequency Domains - Sheet, Spot and Seam Weld Fatigue Benchmark Studies

2020-04-14
2020-01-0195
The fatigue analysis of a full car body requires the sheet metal (sheet fatigue), spot welds (spot weld fatigue) and seam welds (seam weld fatigue) to be thoroughly evaluated for durability. Traditionally this has always been done in the time domain, but recently new frequency domain techniques are able to perform these tasks with numerous advantages. This paper will summarize the frequency domain process and then compare the results and performance against the more usual time domain process.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Mechanical Behavior of Chopped Carbon Fiber Reinforced Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) Composites

2020-04-14
2020-01-1307
As an alternative lightweight material, chopped carbon fiber reinforced Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) composites, formed by compression molding, provide a new material for automotive applications. In the present study, the monotonic and fatigue behavior of chopped carbon fiber reinforced SMC is investigated. Tensile tests were conducted on coupons with three different gauge length, and size effect was observed on the fracture strength. Since the fiber bundle is randomly distributed in the SMC plaques, a digital image correlation (DIC) system was used to obtain the local modulus distribution along the gauge section for each coupon. It was found that there is a relationship between the local modulus distribution and the final fracture location under tensile loading. The fatigue behavior under tension-tension (R=0.1) and tension-compression (R=-1) has also been evaluated.
Technical Paper

Principal Component Analysis of System Usability Scale for Its Application in Automotive In-Vehicle Information System Development

2020-04-14
2020-01-1200
The System Usability Scale (SUS) is used across industries, to evaluate a product’s ease of use. As the automotive industry increases its digital footprint, the SUS has found its application as a simple and reliable assessment of various in-vehicle human machine interfaces. These evaluations cover a broad scope and it is important to design studies with participant fatigue, study time, and study cost in mind. Reducing the number of items in the SUS questionnaire could save researchers time and resources. The SUS is a ten-item questionnaire that can measure usability and learnability, depending on the system. These ten questions are highly correlated to each other suggesting the SUS score can be determined with fewer items. Thus, the focus of this paper is two-fold: using principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the dimensionality of SUS and using this finding to reduce variables and build a regression equation for SUS scores for in-vehicle human machine interfaces.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop, Traffic-in-the-Loop and Software-in-the-Loop Autonomous Vehicle Simulation for Mobility Studies

2020-04-14
2020-01-0704
This paper focuses on finding and analyzing the relevant parameters affecting traffic flow when autonomous vehicles are introduced for ride hailing applications and autonomous shuttles are introduced for circulator applications in geo-fenced urban areas. For this purpose, different scenarios have been created in traffic simulation software that model the different levels of autonomy, traffic density, routes, and other traffic elements. Similarly, software that specializes in vehicle dynamics, physical limitations, and vehicle control has been used to closely simulate realistic autonomous vehicle behavior under such scenarios. Different simulation tools for realistic autonomous vehicle simulation and traffic simulation have been merged together in this paper, creating a realistic simulator with Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL), Traffic-in-the-Loop (TiL), and Software in-the-Loop (SiL) simulation capabilities.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Statistical Error in Unsteady Automotive Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations

2020-04-14
2020-01-0692
Among the many sources of uncertainty in an unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, the statistical uncertainty in the mean value of a fluctuating quantity (for example, the drag coefficient) is of practical importance for vehicle design and development. This uncertainty can be reduced by extending the simulation run length, however, this increases the computational cost and leads to longer turnaround times. Moreover, it is desirable to be able to run an unsteady CFD simulation for the minimum amount of time necessary to reach an acceptable amount of uncertainty in the quantity of interest. This work assesses several methods for calculating the uncertainty in the mean of an unsteady signal. Simulated noise is used to validate the methods, and evaluation is carried out using signals from CFD simulations of realistic vehicle geometries. Calculating the uncertainty in the difference between two signals is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Predictive Break-In and Rapid Efficiency Characterization of Beam Axles

2020-04-14
2020-01-1413
Given continued industry focus on reducing parasitic losses, the ability to accurately measure the magnitude of losses on all driveline components is required. A standardized test procedure enables manufacturers and suppliers to measure component losses consistently, in addition to offering a reliable process to assess enablers for efficiency improvements. This paper reviews the development of SAE draft standard J3218, which is a comprehensive test procedure to break-in and characterize the efficiency of beam axles. Focus areas of the study included ensuring the axle’s efficiency does not change as it is being characterized, building a detailed map of efficiency at a wide range of operating points, and minimizing test time. The resulting break-in procedure uses an asymptotic regression approach to predict fully broken in efficiency of the axle and determine how much the efficiency of the axle changes during the characterization phase.
Journal Article

Unified Power-Based Vehicle Fuel Consumption Model Covering a Range of Conditions

2020-04-14
2020-01-1278
Previously fuel consumption on a drive cycle has been shown to be proportional to traction work, with an offset for powertrain losses. This model had different transfer functions for different drive cycles, performance levels, and applied powertrain technologies. Following Soltic it is shown that if fuel usage and traction work are both expressed in terms of cycle average power, a wide range of drive cycles collapse to a single transfer function, where cycle average traction power captures the drive cycle and the vehicle size. If this transfer function is then normalized by weight, i.e. by working in cycle average power/weight (P/W), a linear model is obtained where the offset is mainly a function of rated performance and applied technology. A final normalization by rated power/weight as the primary performance metric further collapses the data to express the cycle average fuel power/rated power ratio as a function of cycle average traction power/rated power ratio.
Journal Article

Durability Study of Automotive Additive Manufactured Specimens

2020-04-14
2020-01-0957
The long-term weathering behavior of three different 3D printable, non-stabilized, UV cure resin formulations (A and B with thiol-ene base, and C with acrylate chemistry) was studied using tensile testing, nano-indentation, and photoacoustic infrared (FTIR-PAS) spectroscopy. To this end, type I tensile bars were printed from each resin system using a 3D printer, and were post UV-cured under a broad spectrum source. Systems A and C showed a similar trend after weathering. They first experienced an increase in modulus and tensile strength, due to additional crosslinking of the residual unreacted species. This increase in mechanical properties was followed by a drop in modulus, tensile strength, and percent elongation, due to the over-crosslinking and consequent embrittlement. System B, however, showed remarkable retention of the mechanical properties before/after weathering.
Technical Paper

Virtual Verification of Wrecker Tow Requirements

2020-04-14
2020-01-0766
Under various real-world scenarios, vehicles can become disabled and require towing. OEMs allow a few options for vehicle wrecker towing that include wheel lift tow using a stinger or towing on a flatbed. These methods entail multiple loading events that need to be assessed for damage to the towed vehicle. OEMs have several testing and evaluation methods in place for those scenarios with majority requiring physical vehicle prototypes. Recent focus to reduce product development time and cost has replaced the need for prototype testing with analytical verification methods. In this paper, the CAE method involving multibody dynamic simulation (MBDS) as well as finite element analysis (FEA) of vehicle flatbed operation, winching onto a flatbed, and stinger-pull towing are discussed.
Technical Paper

Recent Advances in Swelling Resistance of Graphene-Based Rubber Compounds

2020-04-14
2020-01-0769
Recently, graphene has attracted both academic and industrial interest because it can produce a dramatic improvement in properties at very low filler content. This review will focus on the latest studies and recent progress in the swelling resistance of rubber compounds due to the addition of graphene and its derivatives. This work will present the state-of-the-art in this subject area and will highlight the advantages and current limitations of the use of graphene for potential future researches.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of the Effects of Ventilation on Burn Patterns Resulting from Passenger Compartment Interior Fires

2020-04-14
2020-01-0923
Vehicle fire investigators often use the existence of burn patterns, along with the amount and location of fire damage, to determine the fire origin and its cause. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of ventilation location on the interior burn patterns and burn damage of passenger compartment fires. Four similar Ford Fusion vehicles were burned. The fire origin and first material ignited were the same for all four vehicles. In each test, a different door window was down for the duration of the burn test. Each vehicle was allowed to burn until the windshield, back glass, or another window, other than the window used for ventilation, failed, thus changing the ventilation pattern. At that point, the fire was extinguished. Temperatures were measured at various locations in the passenger compartment. Video recordings and still photography were collected at all phases of the study.
Technical Paper

Ignition Switch Material Definition to Avoid Hard to Start Issue

2020-01-13
2019-36-0138
Nowadays, develop and launch a new product in the market is hard to every company. When we talk about a launch new vehicle to the customers, this task could be considered more difficult than other products whether imagine how fast the technology should be integrated to vehicle. There are main pillars to be considered in this scenario: low cost, design, innovation, competitiveness and safety. Whereas Brazilian economic scenario, all OEM has to be aware to opportunity to make the product profitable and keep acceptable quality. This combination between low cost and quality could be broken or not distributed equally between the pillars. Based on that, in some cases could have a quality broken that will affect directly the customer. This paper will focus on project to define of the new ignition switch, when the main challenge to achieve the cost reduction target was defined to change a material to electrical terminals.
Technical Paper

Commercial vehicle pedal feeling comfort ranges definition

2020-01-13
2019-36-0016
The brake pedal is the brake system component that the driver fundamentally has contact and through its action wait the response of the whole system. Each OEM defines during vehicle conceptualization the behavior of brake pedal that characterizes the pedal feel that in general reflects not only the characteristic from that vehicle but also from the entire brand. Technically, the term known as Pedal Feel means the relation between the force applied on the pedal, the pedal travel and the deceleration achieved by the vehicle. Such relation curves are also analyzed in conjunction with objective analysis sheets where the vehicle brake behavior is analyzed in test track considering different deceleration conditions, force and pedal travel. On technical literature, it is possible to find some data and studies considering the hydraulic brakes behavior.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis between American and European Requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Focusing on Commercial Vehicles

2019-09-15
2019-01-2141
Analysis of road accidents has shown that an important portion of fatal crashes involving Commercial Vehicles are caused by rollovers. ESC systems in Commercial Vehicles can reduce rollovers, severe understeer or oversteer conditions and minimize occurrences of jackknifing events. Several studies have estimated that this positive effect of ESC on road safety is substantial. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is expected to prevent by far the most fatalities and injuries: about 3,000 fatalities (-14%), and about 50,000 injuries (-6%) per year. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control Systems is mandatory for all vehicles (since Nov. 1st, 2011 for new types of vehicle and Nov. 1st, 2014 for all new vehicles), including Commercial Vehicles, Buses, Trucks and Trailers.
Technical Paper

Brake Pedal Feeling Comfort Analysis for Trucks with Pneumatic Brake System

2019-09-15
2019-01-2140
The brake pedal is the brake system component that the driver fundamentally has contact and through its action wait the response of the whole system. Each OEM defines during vehicle conceptualization the behavior of brake pedal that characterizes the pedal feel that in general reflects not only the characteristic from that vehicle but also from the entire brand. Technically, the term known as Pedal Feel means the relation between the force applied on the pedal, the pedal travel and the deceleration achieved by the vehicle. Such relation curves are also analyzed in conjunction with objective analysis sheets where the vehicle brake behavior is analyzed in test track considering different deceleration conditions, force and pedal travel. On technical literature, it is possible to find some data and studies considering the hydraulic brakes behavior.
Technical Paper

Developing a Real-World, Second-by-Second Driving Cycle Database through Public Vehicle Trip Surveys

2019-07-08
2019-01-5074
Real-world second-by-second vehicle driving cycle data is very important for vehicle research and development. A project solely dedicated to generating such information would be tremendously costly and time consuming. Alternatively, we developed such a database by utilizing two publicly available passenger vehicle travel surveys: 2004-2006 Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC) Travel Survey and 2011 Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC) Travel Survey. The surveys complement each other - the former is in low time resolution but covers driver operation for over one year whereas the latter is in high time resolution but represents only one-week-long driving operation. After analyzing the PSRC survey, we chose 382 vehicles, each of which continuously operated for one year, and matched their trips to all the ARC trips. The matching is carried out based on trip distance first, then on average speed, and finally on duration.
Technical Paper

Duct Shape Optimization Using Multi-Objective and Geometrically Constrained Adjoint Solver

2019-04-02
2019-01-0823
In the recent years, adjoint optimization has gained popularity in the automotive industry with its growing applications. Since its inclusion in the mainstream commercial CFD solvers and its continuously added capabilities over the years, its productive usage became readily available to many engineers who were previously limited to interfacing the customized adjoint source code with CFD solvers. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate using an adjoint solver a method to optimize duct shape that meets multiple design objectives simultaneously. To overcome one of the biggest challenges in the duct design, i.e. the severe packaging constraints, the method here uses geometrically constrained adjoint to ensure that the optimum shape always fits into the user-defined packaging space. In this work, adjoint solver and surface sensitivity calculations are used to develop the optimization method.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of a Transmission E-Pump for Application in Hybrid Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0349
The Electric Pump (E-Pump) is a critical component in the hybrid transmission system. The E-Pump provides flow to maintain a stable line pressure when the engine is in an off state. The main applications of the E-Pump are Park Pawl engagement and disengagement, engine start-stop operation and shadow shifting. A Systems Engineering Approach was followed to develop a medium fidelity plant model for the E-Pump. The developed model was initially tested and validated in the Model in-the loop (MIL) environment. After initial validation, the model was integrated into the overall vehicle model which was then tested on the Software in-the loop (SIL) and Hardware in-the loop (HIL) environments. The model was validated across different platforms and several operating conditions. The basic applications of the E-Pump such as park pawl actuation, engine starting and shadow shifting were validated.
Technical Paper

CVT Ratio Scheduling Optimization with Consideration of Engine and Transmission Efficiency

2019-04-02
2019-01-0773
This paper proposes a transmission ratio scheduling and control methodology for a vehicle with a Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) and a downsized gasoline engine. The methodology is designed to deliver the optimal vehicle fuel economy within drivability and performance constraints. Traditionally, the Optimum Operating Line (OOL) generated from an engine brake specific fuel consumption map is considered to be the best option for ratio scheduling, as it defines the points at which engine efficiency is maximized. But the OOL does not consider transmission efficiency, which may be a source of significant losses. To develop a CVT ratio schedule that offers the best fuel economy for the complete powertrain, an empirical approach was used to minimize fuel consumption by considering engine efficiency, CVT efficiency, and requested vehicle power. A backward-looking model was used to simulate a standard driving cycle (FTP-75) and develop a new powertrain-optimal operating line (P-OOL).
Technical Paper

A NVH CAE approach performed on a vehicle closures pumping issue

2018-09-03
2018-36-0287
The use of finite element modeling (FEM) tools is part of the most of the current product development projects of the automotive industry companies, replacing an important part of the physical tests with lower costs, higher speed and with increasing accuracy by each day. In addition to this, computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools can be either used after the product is released, at any moment of the product life, in many different situation as a new feature release, to validate a more cost-efficient design proposal or to help on solving some manufacturing problem or even a vehicular field issue. Different from the phase where the product is still under development, when standard virtual test procedures are performed in order to validate the vehicle project, in this case, where engineers expertise plays a very important role, before to proceed with any standard test it is fundamental to understand the physics of the phenomena that is causing the unexpected behavior.
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