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Technical Paper

Geometric Description of the Soot Cake in a One-Dimensional Model of an Octo-Square Asymmetric Particulate Filter

2019-04-02
2019-01-0991
Asymmetric particulate filters (PF), where the inlet channel is wider than the outlet channel, are commonly used because of their greater ash capacity. Surprisingly, very few models for asymmetric PFs have been published. This paper considers how to model the soot cake in octo-square asymmetric PFs. Some previous studies have neglected the octahedral shape of the inlet channel and instead erroneously assumed that the inlet channels were square. As the correct approach for modelling the soot cake is not obvious, three options are considered. The calculation of soot-loaded channel perimeter and hydraulic diameter (which are important for heat and mass transfer), soot thickness and backpressure as a function of soot loading are given for each geometry. In option 1, the shape of the soot-loaded channel is assumed to be geometrically similar to the soot-free channel.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Its Contribution to Evaluate Highly Automated Driving Functions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0140
A key criterion for launching autonomous vehicles on real roads is the knowledge of their capability to ensure traffic safety. In contrast to ADAS, deriving this measure of safety is difficult to achieve as the functional scope of an autonomous driving function exceeds by far the one of ADAS. As a consequence, real-world testing solely is not sufficient enough to cover the required test volume. This assessment problem imposes new requirements on a valid test concept for automated driving. A possible solution represents simulation by enabling it to generate reliable test kilometers. As a first step, we discuss in this paper the feasibility of simulation frameworks to re-simulate a real-world test in certain scenarios. We will demonstrate that even with ground truth information of the vehicle odometry and corresponding environment model an acceptable accordance of functional behavior is not guaranteed.
Technical Paper

Student Concept Vehicle: Development and Usability of an Innovative Holographic User Interface Concept and a Novel Parking Assistance System Concept

2019-04-02
2019-01-0396
The Deep Orange program is a concept vehicle development program focused on providing hands-on experience in design, engineering, prototyping and production planning as part of students’ two-year MS graduate education. Throughout this project, the team was challenged to create innovative concepts during the ideation phase as part of building the running vehicle. This paper describes the usability studies performed on two of the vehicle concepts that require driver interaction. One concept is a human machine interface (HMI) that uses a holographic companion that can act as a concierge for all functions of the vehicle. After creating a prototype using existing technologies and developing a user interface controlled by hand gestures, a usability study was completed with older adults. The results suggest the input method was not intuitive. Participants demonstrated better performance with tasks using discrete hand motions in comparison to those that required continuous motions.
Technical Paper

Catalyst-Based BS VI Stage 2 Emission Control Solutions for Light Duty Diesel

2019-01-09
2019-26-0141
Various types of after-treatment system for BS VI Stage 1 are being assessed for the Light Duty Diesel (LDD) segment. For BS VI Stage 2, Real Driving Emission (RDE) assessment will be newly introduced, which will require more robustness in emission control system capability. Although the detailed requirements for India BS VI stage 2 are still being discussed, a reasonable assumption is that similar systems to those being developed for Euro 6d, will work for India BS VI. This paper describes typical system designs for Euro 6d and also reveals newly developed SCRF® (Selective Catalytic Reduction Filter) based systems, which demonstrate excellent RDE emissions. In addition, newly developed Lean NOx Trap (NSC) coatings, which focus on low temperature NOx control used with SCRF® (NSC + SCRF®) also show excellent emission control capability as demonstrated in this case on the ARTEMIS Cycle. These systems have potential as promising LDD solutions for India BS VI stage 2.
Technical Paper

From Theory to Three-Dimensional Finite Element Models: An Innovative Method for Validation

2018-06-13
2018-01-1536
As a key part of numerical analysis, the modeling process has a tremendous influence on the quality of the results. While there is general awareness concerning uncertainties that arise during modeling, their quantity and sensitivity rarely are known. Hence, modeling quickly can become inaccurate and inefficient. The scope of the present paper is to innovate predictive modeling processes concerning the dynamics of real complex structures by means of linear modal analysis with the finite element method (FEM). The aim is to offer a transparent design catalog relating specific uncertainties to each model component in order to achieve error prevention for engineers dealing with comparable systems. A complex system is simplified and investigated for different levels of detail. Only after the model uncertainties for one level of detail are obtained, the next level of complexity is approached.
Technical Paper

Frequency and Temperature Dependent Stiffness and Damping Properties of Reduced Viscoelastic Structures Using Component Mode Synthesis (CMS)

2018-06-13
2018-01-1498
Model Order Reduction (MOR) methods such as Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) have been used in order to simulate large linear dynamic systems for many years and have reached a considerable level of saturation. These reduction methods have many advantages such as minimizing computational costs but also have restrictions. One of their disadvantages is that material damping characteristics can only be defined in form of Rayleigh damping. Another disadvantage is that the reduced order model can only represent one state of the structure determined in the generation process of the reduced matrices. In this paper we present a way to consider material damping in reduced matrices that contain one or more materials having different damping characteristics without the disadvantages of using Rayleigh damping.
Technical Paper

A Fluid-Structure Interaction Scheme for Prediction of Flow-Induced Low Frequency Booming Noise

2018-06-13
2018-01-1521
The analysis of the acoustic behavior of flow fields has gained importance in recent years, especially in the automotive industry. The comfort of the driver is heavily influenced by the noise levels and characteristics, especially during long distance drives. Simulation tools can help to analyze the acoustic properties of a car at an early stage of the development process. This work focuses on the low-frequency sound effects, which can be a significant noise component under certain operating conditions. As a first step in the fluid-structure interaction workflow, the flow around a series-production vehicle is simulated, including passenger cabin and underhood flow. The complexity of this model poses extensive demands on the simulation software, concerning meshing, turbulence modeling and level of parallelism. We conducted a transient simulation of the compressible fluid flow, using a hybrid RANS/LES approach.
Technical Paper

Impact of SCR Activity on Soot Regeneration and the Converse Effects of Soot Regeneration on SCR Activity on a Vanadia-SCRF®

2018-04-03
2018-01-0962
The influence of SCR (selective catalytic reduction) activity on soot regeneration was investigated using engine test measurements with and without urea dosing on a vanadia-SCRF®1, also known as a vanadia SCR coated diesel particulate filter (V.SCR-DPF). The extent and rate of passive soot regeneration is significantly reduced in the presence of SCR activity especially at high temperatures (>250 °C). The reduction in soot regeneration is because some of the NO2, which would otherwise react with the soot, is consumed by SCR reactions and consequently the rate of soot regeneration is lower when urea is dosed. The converse effects of soot oxidation on SCR activity were studied separately by analysing steady-state light-off engine measurements with different initial soot loadings on the V.SCR-DPF. The measurements show an increase in NOX conversion with increasing soot loading.
Technical Paper

A One-Dimensional Model for Square and Octo-Square Asymmetric Particulate Filters with Correct Description of the Channel and Wall Geometry

2018-04-03
2018-01-0951
Asymmetric particulate filters (PF), where the inlet channel is wider than the outlet channel, are commonly used because of their greater capacity for ash. Somewhat surprisingly, very few models for asymmetric PFs have been published and none of these gives a correct/detailed description of the geometry. For example, octahedral channels may be treated as if they were square or the tapering walls between the inlet and outlet channels treated as if they were rectangular in cross section. Alternatively, the equations may be presented in generic form in terms of channel cross-sectional areas and perimeters, but without giving any indication of how to calculate these. This paper aims to address these deficiencies with a model that correctly describes the geometry of square and octo-square asymmetric PFs. Expressions for the solid fraction of the PF (which affects thermal mass) and channel cross section and perimeter (both when clean and soot/ash loaded) are presented.
Technical Paper

Motion Cueing Algorithm for a 9 DoF Driving Simulator: MPC with Linearized Actuator Constraints

2018-04-03
2018-01-0570
In times when automated driving is becoming increasingly relevant, dynamic simulators present an appropriate simulation environment to faithfully reproduce driving scenarios. A realistic replication of driving dynamics is an important criterion to immerse persons in the virtual environments provided by the simulator. Motion Cueing Algorithms (MCAs) compute the simulator’s control input, based on the motions of the simulated vehicle. The technical restrictions of the simulator’s actuators form the main limitation in the execution of these input commands. Typical dynamic simulators consist of a hexapod with six degrees of freedom (DoF) to reproduce the vehicle motion in all dimensions. Since its workspace dimensions are limited, significant improvements in motion capabilities can be achieved by expanding the simulator with redundant DoF by means of additional actuators.
Technical Paper

Conceptualization and Implementation of a Scalable Powertrain, Modular Energy Storage and an Alternative Cooling System on a Student Concept Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1185
The Deep Orange program immerses automotive engineering students into the world of an OEM as part of their 2-year graduate education. In support of developing the program’s seventh vehicle concept, the students studied the sponsoring brand essence, conducted market research, and made a heuristic assessment of competitor vehicles. The upfront research lead to the definition of target customers and setting vehicle level targets that were broken down into requirements to develop various vehicle sub-systems. The powertrain team was challenged to develop a scalable propulsion concept enabled by a common vehicle architecture that allowed future customers to select (at the point of purchase) among various levels of electrification best suiting their needs and personal desires. Four different configurations were identified and developed: all-electric, two plug-in hybrid electric configurations, and an internal combustion engine only.
Technical Paper

Technology from Highly Automated Driving to Improve Active Pedestrian Protection Systems

2017-03-28
2017-01-1409
Highly Automated Driving (HAD) opens up new middle-term perspectives in mobility and is currently one of the main goals in the development of future vehicles. The focus is the implementation of automated driving functions for structured environments, such as on the motorway. To achieve this goal, vehicles are equipped with additional technology. This technology should not only be used for a limited number of use cases. It should also be used to improve Active Safety Systems during normal non-automated driving. In the first approach we investigate the usage of machine learning for an autonomous emergency braking system (AEB) for the active pedestrian protection safety. The idea is to use knowledge of accidents directly for the function design. Future vehicles could be able to record detailed information about an accident. If enough data from critical situations recorded by vehicles is available, it is conceivable to use it to learn the function design.
Technical Paper

Designing Sound for Quiet Cars

2016-06-15
2016-01-1839
The quiet nature of hybrid and electric vehicles has triggered developments in research, vehicle manufacturing and legal requirements. Currently, three countries require fitting an Approaching Vehicle Alerting System (AVAS) to every new car capable of driving without a combustion engine. Various other geographical areas and groups are in the process of specifying new legal requirements. In this paper, the design challenges in the on-going process of designing the sound for quiet cars are discussed. A proposal is issued on how to achieve the optimum combination of safety, environmental noise, subjective sound character and technical realisation in an iterative sound design process. The proposed sound consists of two layers: the first layer contains tonal components with their pitch rising along with vehicle speed in order to ensure recognisability and an indication of speed.
Journal Article

Further Investigations on the Flow Around a Rotating, Isolated Wheel with Detailed Tread Pattern

2015-04-14
2015-01-1554
Efforts in aerodynamic optimization of road vehicles have been steadily increasing in recent years, mainly focusing on the reduction of aerodynamic drag. Of a car's total drag, wheels and wheel houses account for approx. 25 percent. Consequently, the flow around automotive wheels has lately been investigated intensively. Previously, the authors studied a treaded, deformable, isolated full-scale tire rotating in contact with the ground in the wind tunnel and using the Lattice-Boltzmann solver Exa PowerFLOW. It was shown that applying a common numerical setup, with velocity boundary condition prescribed on the tread, significant errors were introduced in the simulation. The contact patch separation was exaggerated and the flow field from wind tunnel measurements could not be reproduced. This investigation carries on the work by examining sensitivities and new approaches in the setup.
Journal Article

Maneuver-Based Analysis of Starting-Systems and Starting-Strategies for the Internal Combustion Engine in Full Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2014-10-13
2014-01-2901
The requirement of the start of the internal combustion engine (ICE) not only at vehicle standstill is new for full hybrid electric vehicles in comparison to conventional vehicles. However, the customer will not accept any deterioration with respect to dynamics and comfort. ICE-starting-systems and -strategies have to be designed to meet those demands. Within this research, a method was developed which allows a reproducible maneuver-based analysis of ICE-starts. In the first step, a maneuver catalogue including a customer-oriented maneuver program with appropriate analysis criteria was defined. Afterwards, the maneuvers were implemented and verified in a special test bench environment. Based on the method, two sample hybrid vehicles were benchmarked according to the maneuver catalogue. The benchmarking results demonstrate important dependencies between the criteria-based assessment of ICE-starts and the embedded ICE-starting-system and -strategy.
Technical Paper

Patch Transfer Function Approach for Analysis of Coupled Vibro-Acoustic Problems Involving Porous Materials

2014-06-30
2014-01-2092
In many application fields, such as automotive and aerospace, the full FE Biot model has been widely applied to vibro-acoustics problems involving poro-elastic materials in order to predict their structural and acoustic performance. The main drawback of this approach is however the large computational burden and the uncertainty of the input data (Biot parameters) that may lead to less accurate prediction. In order to overcome these disadvantages industry is asking for more efficient techniques. The vibro-acoustic behaviour of structures coupled with poroelastic trims and fluid cavities can be predicted by means of the Patch Transfer Function (PTF) approach. The PTF is a sub-structuring procedure that allows for coupling different sub-systems via impedance relations determined at their common interfaces. The coupling surfaces are discretised into elementary areas called patches.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation of Dampening Dynamic Profiles for the Application in Transient Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0642
As computational methodologies become more integrated into industrial vehicle pre-development processes the potential for high transient vehicle thermal simulations is evident. This can also been seen in conjunction with the strong rise in computing power, which ultimately has supported many automotive manufactures in attempting non-steady simulation conditions. The following investigation aims at exploring an efficient means of utilizing the new rise in computing resources by resolving high time-dependent boundary conditions through a series of averaging methodologies. Through understanding the sensitivities associated with dynamic component temperature changes, optimised boundary conditions can be implemented to dampen irrelevant input frequencies whilst maintaining thermally critical velocity gradients.
Technical Paper

The Development of Exhaust Surface Temperature Models for 3D CFD Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations Part 2 - Exhaust Acoustic Silencer Configurations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0646
At the rear of the vehicle an end acoustic silencer is attached to the exhaust system. This is primarily to reduce noise emissions for the benefit of passengers and bystanders. Due to the location of the end acoustic silencer conventional thermal protection methods (heat shields) through experimental means can not only be difficult to incorporate but also can be an inefficient and costly experience. Hence simulation methods may improve the development process by introducing methods of optimization in early phase vehicle design. A previous publication (Part 1) described a methodology of improving the surface temperatures prediction of general exhaust configurations. It was found in this initial study that simulation results for silencer configurations exhibited significant discrepancies in comparison to experimental data.
Journal Article

The Development of Turbine Volute Surface Temperature Models for 3D CFD Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations: Part 3: Exhaust Radial Turbine Volute Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0648
Modern exhaust systems contain not only a piping network to transport hot gas from the engine to the atmosphere, but also functional components such as the catalytic converter and turbocharger. The turbocharger is common place in the automotive industry due to their capability to increase the specific power output of reciprocating engines. As the exhaust system is a main heat source for the under body of the vehicle and the turbocharger is located within the engine bay, it is imperative that accurate surface temperatures are achieved. A study by K. Haehndel [1] implemented a 1D fluid stream as a replacement to solving 3D fluid dynamics of the internal exhaust flow. To incorporate the 3D effects of internal fluid flow, augmented Nusselt correlations were used to produce heat transfer coefficients. It was found that the developed correlations for the exhaust system did not adequately represent the heat transfer of the turbocharger.
Journal Article

New Methodology for Transient Engine Rig Experiments for Efficient Parameter Tuning

2013-12-20
2013-01-9043
When performing catalyst modeling and parameter tuning it is desirable that the experimental data contain both transient and stationary points and can be generated over a short period of time. Here a method of creating such concentration transients for a full scale engine rig system is presented. The paper describes a valuable approach for changing the composition of engine exhaust gas going to a DOC (or potentially any other device) by conditioning the exhaust gas with an additional upstream DOC and/or SCR. By controlling the urea injection and the DOC bypass a wide range of exhaust compositions, not possible by only controlling the engine, could be achieved. This will improve the possibilities for parameter estimation for the modeling of the DOC.
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