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Technical Paper

Development of an Analytical Method for Rear Differential Gear Whine Noise utilizing Principal Component Contribution by OTPA and CAE

2019-06-05
2019-01-1555
Due to the global warming concern, CO2 emission regulations have been reinforced in most countries and electrification of automobiles has accelerated. Since the engine noise will be largely reduced, the improvements of gear whine noise becomes more important. But gear whine noise mechanism is complicated by involving many parts and transmitting paths to the cabin. Operational Transfer Path Analysis (OTPA) is one of the TPA methods to determine the main path and contributing part using only the operational data. However, in cases which many reference points are set on the same frame or body, the contribution becomes similar by high correlation among the reference data set and finding out the main transfer part becomes difficult. The contribution of principal component (PC) which is obtained from the correlated reference signals, instead of calculating the contribution from each reference point by modifying the OTPA process, has been utilized.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management of a Hybrid Vehicle Using a Heat Pump

2019-04-02
2019-01-0502
This paper presents the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle (HV) by using a heat pump system in cold weather. The advantage of an HV is a high efficiency of the vehicle system since an electric motor and an engine are coupled and optimally controlled. However, in the conventional HV, we see the fuel economy degradation in cold weather because delivering heat to the passenger cabin by using an engine results in a low efficiency of the vehicle system. To improve the fuel economy degradation, in this study, a heat pump is used and combined with an engine for the thermal management. The heat pump with an electrically driven compressor pumps heat from ambient into a water-cooled condenser. The heat which is generated by the engine and the heat pump is delivered to the engine and the passenger cabin because the engine needs to warm up quickly to reduce the emission and the cabin needs heat for thermal comfort.
Technical Paper

A target cascading method using model based simulation in early stage of vehicle development

2019-04-02
2019-01-0836
Vehicle specifications which satisfy various constraint conditions of target performance indices are required in the early stage of vehicle development. For this decision making, model based simulation plays important role to provide candidates of feasible specifications and can be used to find optimal specifications by applying optimization method. In order to enhance the efficiency of later development processes, those optimal specifications obtained from the optimization problem are required to be not only feasible but also flexible. To guarantee these requirements, it is important for decision maker to understand feasible region space and its mechanism where satisfies every constraint based on model based simulations. The purpose of this study is not to find best solution in design space but to understand feasible design space and its mechanism.
Technical Paper

A Study of Triple Skyhook Control for Semi-Active Suspension System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0168
The research described in this paper focused on improving occupant ride comfort and road holding by suppressing sprung and unsprung vibration using a semi-active suspension system. It has been reported that occupants tend to perceive vertical vibrations in a frequency range between 4 and 8 Hz as uncomfortable (described below as the “mid-frequency range”). Previous research into semi-active suspension system has focused on reducing vibration in this mid-frequency range, as well as close to the sprung resonance frequency of between 1 and 2 Hz. Skyhook damper (SH) control is a typical ride comfort control used to damp vibration close to the sprung resonance frequency. However, since SH control is not capable of damping vibration in the mid-frequency range, the shock absorbers are configured with a lower damping factor. This helps to achieve a good balance between reducing vibration close to the sprung mass resonance and in the mid-frequency range.
Technical Paper

New Method to Achieve High Hydraulic Pressure and Improved Gear Pump Performance in Active Height Control (AHC) System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0854
There are high demands to reduce the mass of the vehicles in order to deal with tight fuel economy regulations of vehicles in each country. In this development, we have to develop the new lighter actuator for the AHC (Active Height Control Suspension) system. The reduction of the mass ‘5kg’ and the miniaturization of the system have been achieved by disusing an accumulator, which had assisted the output performance of the hydraulic gear pump on the AHC. The new pump system, which could accumulate more high hydraulic pressure and release more fluid, is required. Realization of this high requirement, the clearance between top of the gear tooth and the surface of the aluminum housing is set to be zero. We have established the new method, called ‘Break-In Process’, to implement this distance shaving the surface by rotating the gear. However, this ‘shaving remaining’ which should be shaved in this process can cause increase of the friction loss of the pump.
Technical Paper

Highly decorative, lightweight flexible solar cells for automotive applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0863
In 2012, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration laid down strict standards for CO2 emissions and improved fuel economy for light-duty vehicles covering the model years 2017 to 2025. In order to meet the requirement, it is essential to develop an alternative power source for the future cars. Power generation by solar cells/modules is a promising renewable energy candidate because the most environmentally friendly vehicles such as electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are equipped with large-capacity batteries that can be charged with electricity generated by solar cells/modules. In this study, we developed a simple lift-off process for producing colorful, light-weight, and flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells for automotive application.
Technical Paper

Research of Knocking Deterioration due to Accumulated Carbon Deposits on Piston Surfaces

2019-04-02
2019-01-1141
In recent years, fuel economy regulation is expanding to reduce CO2 emission and energy saving in world wide. To achieve the regulation, automaker efforts to develop electrification technology and improve engine thermal efficiency with high compression ratio. On the other hand, variety of fuels such as a reformed gasoline and bio fuel share is growing rapidly to utilize of fossil fuel by legal arrangements. With the spread of reformed gasoline, there are some risk of increased carbon deposit and accumulated on piston surface, due to heavy aromatic and olefin in the fuel. In combustion point of view, knocking should be deteriorated by synergy effect both accumulated carbon deposit and said high compression ratio. Furthermore, knocking deterioration do not occur in regularly, especially they occur in low-middle engine load. However, this mechanism is not clear.
Technical Paper

Bench Testing Validation of Wireless Power Transfer for electric and hybrid vehicles up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954

2019-04-02
2019-01-0868
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is presently being applied to consumer electronics in the low-power range and is planned to be commercialized in the high-power range for plug-in and electric vehicles in the near future. There are, however, technology challenges remaining before widespread implementation of high-power WPT will occur. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 adopts a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies for SAE J2954.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Its Contribution to Evaluate Highly Automated Driving Functions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0140
A key criterion for launching autonomous vehicles on real roads is the knowledge of their capability to ensure traffic safety. In contrast to ADAS, deriving this measure of safety is difficult to achieve as the functional scope of an autonomous driving function exceeds by far the one of ADAS. As a consequence, real-world testing solely is not sufficient enough to cover the required test volume. This assessment problem imposes new requirements on a valid test concept for automated driving. A possible solution represents simulation by enabling it to generate reliable test kilometers. As a first step, we discuss in this paper the feasibility of simulation frameworks to re-simulate a real-world test in certain scenarios. We will demonstrate that even with ground truth information of the vehicle odometry and corresponding environment model an acceptable accordance of functional behavior is not guaranteed.
Technical Paper

Student Concept Vehicle: Development and Usability of an Innovative Holographic User Interface Concept and a Novel Parking Assistance System Concept

2019-04-02
2019-01-0396
The Deep Orange program is a concept vehicle development program focused on providing hands-on experience in design, engineering, prototyping and production planning as part of students’ two-year MS graduate education. Throughout this project, the team was challenged to create innovative concepts during the ideation phase as part of building the running vehicle. This paper describes the usability studies performed on two of the vehicle concepts that require driver interaction. One concept is a human machine interface (HMI) that uses a holographic companion that can act as a concierge for all functions of the vehicle. After creating a prototype using existing technologies and developing a user interface controlled by hand gestures, a usability study was completed with older adults. The results suggest the input method was not intuitive. Participants demonstrated better performance with tasks using discrete hand motions in comparison to those that required continuous motions.
Technical Paper

Using Chemical Kinetics to Understand Effects of Fuel Type and Compression Ratio on Knock-Mitigation Effectiveness of Various EGR Constituents

2019-04-02
2019-01-1140
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be used to mitigate knock in SI engines. However, experiments have shown that the effectiveness of various EGR constituents to suppress knock varies with fuel type and compression ratio (CR). To understand some of the underlying mechanisms by which fuel composition, octane sensitivity (S), and CR affect the knock-mitigation effectiveness of EGR constituents, the current paper presents results from a chemical-kinetics modeling study. The numerical study was conducted with CHEMKIN, imposing experimentally acquired pressure traces on a closed reactor model. Simulated conditions include combinations of three RON-98 (Research Octane Number) fuels with two octane sensitivities and distinctive compositions, three EGR diluents, and two CRs. The experimental results point to the important role of thermal stratification in the end-gas to smooth peak heat-release rate (HRR) and prevent acoustic noise.
Technical Paper

Development of Strength Distributed Hot Stamp Parts

2019-04-02
2019-01-0522
1 Structural parts, such as the center pillar, are a multi-layer structure. They are a combination of high-strength panels and high-toughness panels, to control the deformation mode during a crash. If we can make this multi-layered structure as one panel, consisting of different hardness within it, we will be able to make a lightweight part. In this study, we have developed a method to fabricate a ‘lightweight center pillar’ with the following processes. First, the whole panel is hardened by quenching within the hot stamp process. Next, certain areas of the panel are softened by partial tempering. We have found that the temperature zone for softening is between A1 and A3, and it is easy to perform a rapid and accurate tempering by utilizing induction heating around the Curie temperature between A1 and A3 transformation temperature.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction Method for Self-Piercing Rivets Considering Crack Propagation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0531
This paper describes a numerical prediction method for fatigue strength of Self Piercing Rivets (SPRs) using fracture mechanics. Recently, high strength steels and non-ferrous metals have been adopted to light weight automotive bodies. Various types of joining are proposed for multi-material bodies. It is important to predict the fatigue life of these joints using numerical simulation. However, the fatigue strength of these joints is related to sheet thickness, base materials, and loading conditions. Therefore, a large number of coupon tests are necessary to determine the S-N curve for the fatigue life prediction of joints in the automotive body. To reduce the amount of coupon testing, numerical simulation will be an efficient method in obtaining the S-N curve of these joints. The fatigue fracture process consists of two stages, crack initiation and crack growth. There are many studies about crack growth estimation methods using stress intensity factor.
Technical Paper

Development of TLP-AI Technology to Realize High Temperature Operation of Power Module

2019-04-02
2019-01-0607
Application of SiC power devices is regarded as a promising means of reducing the power loss of power modules mounted in power control units. Due to those high thermostable characteristics, the power module with SiC power devices are required to have higher operating temperature than the conventional power module with Si power devices. However, the limitations of current packaging technology prevent the utilization of the full potential of SiC power devices. To resolve these issues, the development of device bonding technology is very important. Although transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding is a promising technology for enabling high temperature operation because its bonding layer has a high melting point, the characteristics of the TLP bonding layer tend to damage the power devices. This paper describes the development of a bonding technology to achieve high temperature operation using a stress reduction effect.
Technical Paper

From Theory to Three-Dimensional Finite Element Models: An Innovative Method for Validation

2018-06-13
2018-01-1536
As a key part of numerical analysis, the modeling process has a tremendous influence on the quality of the results. While there is general awareness concerning uncertainties that arise during modeling, their quantity and sensitivity rarely are known. Hence, modeling quickly can become inaccurate and inefficient. The scope of the present paper is to innovate predictive modeling processes concerning the dynamics of real complex structures by means of linear modal analysis with the finite element method (FEM). The aim is to offer a transparent design catalog relating specific uncertainties to each model component in order to achieve error prevention for engineers dealing with comparable systems. A complex system is simplified and investigated for different levels of detail. Only after the model uncertainties for one level of detail are obtained, the next level of complexity is approached.
Technical Paper

Frequency and Temperature Dependent Stiffness and Damping Properties of Reduced Viscoelastic Structures Using Component Mode Synthesis (CMS)

2018-06-13
2018-01-1498
Model Order Reduction (MOR) methods such as Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) have been used in order to simulate large linear dynamic systems for many years and have reached a considerable level of saturation. These reduction methods have many advantages such as minimizing computational costs but also have restrictions. One of their disadvantages is that material damping characteristics can only be defined in form of Rayleigh damping. Another disadvantage is that the reduced order model can only represent one state of the structure determined in the generation process of the reduced matrices. In this paper we present a way to consider material damping in reduced matrices that contain one or more materials having different damping characteristics without the disadvantages of using Rayleigh damping.
Technical Paper

A Fluid-Structure Interaction Scheme for Prediction of Flow-Induced Low Frequency Booming Noise

2018-06-13
2018-01-1521
The analysis of the acoustic behavior of flow fields has gained importance in recent years, especially in the automotive industry. The comfort of the driver is heavily influenced by the noise levels and characteristics, especially during long distance drives. Simulation tools can help to analyze the acoustic properties of a car at an early stage of the development process. This work focuses on the low-frequency sound effects, which can be a significant noise component under certain operating conditions. As a first step in the fluid-structure interaction workflow, the flow around a series-production vehicle is simulated, including passenger cabin and underhood flow. The complexity of this model poses extensive demands on the simulation software, concerning meshing, turbulence modeling and level of parallelism. We conducted a transient simulation of the compressible fluid flow, using a hybrid RANS/LES approach.
Technical Paper

Development of Three-Way Catalysts Enhanced NOx Purifying Activity

2018-04-03
2018-01-0942
Growing concerns about the depletion of raw materials as vehicle ownership continues to increase is prompting automakers to look for ways of decreasing the use of platinum-group metals (PGMs) in the exhaust systems. This research has developed a new catalyst with strong robustness against fluctuations in the exhaust gas and excellent nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion performance. One of the key technologies is a new OSC material that has low surface area (SA) and high OSC performance. We enhanced the pyrochlore- ceria/zirconia (CZ) which has a very small SA. In order to enhance the heat resistance and promote the OSC reaction, we selected and optimized the additive element. This material showed high OSC performance especially in the temperature range of 400 degrees or less. Another key technology is washcoat structure that has high gas diffusivity by making connected pore in the washcoat (New pore forming technology).
Technical Paper

Development of CFD Inverse Analysis Technology Targeting Heat or Concentration Performance Using the Adjoint Method and Its Application to Actual Components

2018-04-03
2018-01-1033
To resolve two major problems of conventional CFD-based shape optimization technology: (1) dependence of the outcome on the selection of design parameters, and (2) high computational costs, two types of innovative inverse analysis technologies based on a mathematical theory called the Adjoint Method were developed in previous studies for maximizing an arbitrary hydrodynamic performance aspect as the cost function: surface geometry deformation sensitivity analysis to identify the locations to be modified, and topology optimization to generate an optimal shape. Furthermore, these technologies were extended to transient flows by the application of the transient Adjoint Method theory. However, there are many cases around flow path shapes in vehicles where performance with respect to heat or concentration, such as the total amount of heat transfer or the flow rate of a specific gas component, is very important.
Technical Paper

Development of New Continuously Variable Transmission for 2.0-Liter Class Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1062
Toyota has developed a new continuously variable transmission (CVT) called "Direct Shift-CVT" which is for 2.0-liter class vehicles. This CVT provided not only power transmission by a metal belt held with a conventional pulley but also additional gear mechanism. This CVT is developed to improve fuel efficiency, acceleration characteristic, and quietness. At this CVT, the startup low gear ratio is achieved by gear mechanism and the power is switched by clutches. Since the belt-pulley portion can be realized to be wide range by using only high gear ratio range, the input load into belt-pulley portion is reduced and unprecedented compact and high efficient belt-pulley portion is established. Consequently, the high efficiency in all fields from startup acceleration to high speed driving is achieved to improve fuel efficiency.
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