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Journal Article

Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS)

Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is applied to join advanced high strength steels (AHSS): galvannealed dual phase 780 MPa steel (DP780GA), transformation induced plasticity 780 MPa steel (TRIP780), and hot-stamped boron steel (HSBS). A low-cost Si₃N₄ ceramic tool was developed and used for making welds in this study instead of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) material used in earlier studies. FSSW has the advantages of solid-state, low-temperature process, and the ability of joining dissimilar grade of steels and thicknesses. Two different tool shoulder geometries, concave with smooth surface and convex with spiral pattern, were used in the study. Welds were made by a 2-step displacement control process with weld time of 4, 6, and 10 seconds. Static tensile lap-shear strength achieved 16.4 kN for DP780GA-HSBS and 13.2 kN for TRIP780-HSBS, above the spot weld strength requirements by AWS. Nugget pull-out was the failure mode of the joint.
Technical Paper

Innovative Electrode Design and FEA Validation of Aluminum Resistance Spot Welding

In the new design, the electrode employs composite electrode face construction with dissimilar materials. A cylindrical insert located in the electrode face center is made of low thermal and electrical conductivity material, such as stainless steel, and an annular outer sleeve is made of stainless steel and located at periphery of the electrode. Base material of the electrode is still made of copper alloys. With this electrode design, the electrical-thermal-mechanical conditions can be improved by confining the current flow path to reduce current level required for the weld nugget formation, and optimizing electrode pressure distribution, and minimizing electrode face heating and plastic deformation.
Technical Paper

Weld Process Modeling and It's Importance in a Manufacturing Environment

An important emerging technical area is computer-based modeling of the various manufacturing processes that are used in many diverse industries. These models are used to optimize manufacturing techniques to reduce fabrication costs and improve the service performance. One manufacturing process important in steel fabrication is welding. It can be a useful tool to aid in reducing fabrication costs and service durability by optimizing the weld process and is the subject of this paper.
Technical Paper

Reducing Costs for Electroplaning Zinc Die Casting by Conserving Nickel

The cost of electroplating zinc die castings can be reduced by employing microcracked or microporous chromium in place of conventional chromium; the former is more effective in improving corrosion performance while conserving nickel. Exposure data are examined and specifications for nickel and chromium content are presented.
Technical Paper

Recent Advances in Aluminum Castings

Increased research devoted to the foundry arts has resulted in a greater understanding of the factors essential in producing high quality castings. One outgrowth of these studies has been the development of premium quality aluminum castings. The procedures used for the production of premium quality castings are reviewed, and the improvements in properties that result from adequate attention to these procedures are described.
Technical Paper

Using Electron Microscopy to Study Metal Fracture

Application of electron microscopy to the study of fractures and fracture mechanisms is reviewed. Static fractures and the fracture of multiphased alloys have been studied, and significant information obtained. Striations on the fracture surface are associated with fatigue crack propagation and are directly related to crack growth rates. Various factors such as strength level, corrosive media, and second-phase particles are known to influence the appearance of the striations under the electron microscope. Since the appearance under the microscope of each type of fracture is quite unique, electron microscopic fractography is also an aid in service failure analyses.
Technical Paper

Adherence of Paint on Chromium-Plated Zinc Die Castings

After several alternative procedures were investigated for preparing chromium-plated zinc die castings for painting, one procedure proved best for contaminated chromium surfaces. This procedure included six steps: (1) alkaline spray cleaning, (2) electrolytic alkaline cleaning, (3) rinsing with high-purity water with a specific resistance of 500,000-700,000 ohm-cm, (4) immersing in chromic acid solution (0.05 oz/gal) at 150 F for 2 minutes, or treating cathodically in 0.7 oz/gal of sodium dichromate with a current density of 0.05 amp/sq ft for 30-60 sec, (5) rinsing with high-purity water, (6) forced-air drying with filtered air at 15 psi. Good adherence was obtained by following these procedures and painting with a single coat of acrylic or alkyd-resin paint. Other preparation procedures resulted in inferior paint adherence.