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Technical Paper

Comparative Research on Emission Characteristic and Combustion Characteristic of Gasoline Direct Injection and Port Fuel Injection for Free-Piston Linear Generator

2020-09-15
2020-01-2220
As a new type of energy, free-piston linear generator (FPLG) attracts more research on its stable operation and power performance, while less on its combustion and emission performance. So, in this paper, the emission characteristics of FPLG in two different modes are studied through a port fuel injection (PFI) mode which was verified by the experiment and a gasoline direct injection (GDI) mode. The results showed that: both the GDI mode and the PFI mode produced large amounts of nitrogen oxide (NOx) during the working process. But the GDI mode produced before the PFI mode and it produced nearly 2 times than the PFI mode. However, the formation rate of NOx in GDI mode is much lower than that in PFI mode. Meanwhile, in both modes, 90% of NOX was generated in the cylinder at the temperature higher than 1750K, and only about 10% of NOX was generated at a temperature lower than 1750K.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Kinetic Investigation of Pressure and Temperature Effects on Burning Characteristics of n-Heptane/Air/Hydrogen up to Near Lean Burn Limits

2020-04-14
2020-01-0343
Incomplete-combustion and misfire are the hurdles in internal combustion engines to run on ultra-lean mixture, whereas high thermal efficiency has been achieved at lean mixture. The burning characteristics of n-heptane with 0% and 30% hydrogen additions were studied at 393K-453K and 100kPa-300kPa up to near lean burn limits, λ=0.8-2.0. The flame appeared in spherical shape only by 37-mJ ignition energy (IE) at λ=0.8-1.5, while further lean mixture, ≥1.6, could be ignited only by 3000-mJ with the distorted flame shape. The flame buoyed in the mixture when burning velocity calculated by kinetic mechanism was equal or less than 19.83 cm/s at the initial conditions of λ=1.8, 393K and 100kPa. The thermal instability under impact of initial pressure and temperature was higher at lean mixture than at stoichiometric mixture.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation and Optimization for Combustion of an Opposed Piston Two-Stroke Engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

2020-04-14
2020-01-0782
An opposed piston two-stroke engine is more suitable for use in an unmanned aerial vehicle because of its small size, excellent self-balancing, stable operation, and low noise. Consequently, in this study, based on experimental data for a prototype opposed piston two-stroke engine, numerical simulation models were established using GT-POWER for 1D simulation and AVL-FIRE for 3D CFD simulation. The mesh grid and solver parameters for the numerical model of the CFD simulation were determined to guarantee the accuracy of the numerical simulation, before studying and optimizing the ventilation efficiency of the engine with different dip angles. Furthermore, the fuel spray and combustion were analyzed and optimized in details.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Deformation of Injector Components and Its Influence on the Injection Process

2020-04-14
2020-01-1398
The deformation of injector components cannot be disregarded as the pressure of the system increases. Deformation directly affects the characteristics of needle movement and injection quantity. In this study, structural deformation of the nozzle, the needle and the control plunger under different pressures is calculated by a simulation model. The value of the deformation of injector components is calculated and the maximum deformation location is also determined. Furthermore, the calculated results indicates that the deformation of the control plunger increases the control chamber volume and the cross-section area between the needle and the needle seat. A MATLAB model is established to The influence of structural deformation on needle movement characteristics and injection quantity is investigate by a numerical model. The results show that the characteristic points of needle movement are delayed and injection quantity increases due to the deformation.
Technical Paper

Controlling Strategy for the Performance and NOx Emissions of the Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines with a Turbocharger

2020-04-14
2020-01-0256
Hydrogen fuel is a future energy to solve the problems of energy crisis and environmental pollution. Hydrogen internal combustion engines can combine the advantage of hydrogen without carbon pollution and the main basic structure of the traditional engines. However, the power of the port fuel injection hydrogen engines is smaller than the same volume gasoline engine because the hydrogen occupies the volume of the cylinder and reduces the air mass flow. The turbocharger can increase the power of hydrogen engines but also increase the NOx emission. Hence, a comprehensive controlling strategy to solve the contradiction of the power, BTE and NOx emission is important to improve the performance of hydrogen engines. This paper shows the controlling strategy for a four-stroke, 2.3L hydrogen engine with a turbocharger. The controlling strategy divides the operating conditions of the hydrogen engine into six parts according to the engine speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Effect of n-Butanol Addition on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of HTL and Diesel Blends

2020-04-14
2020-01-0393
HTL is a kind of biodiesel converted from wet biowaste via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), which has drawn increasing attention in recent years due to its wide range of raw materials (algae, swine manure, and food processing waste). However, from the previous experiments done in a constant volume chamber, it was observed that the presence of 20% of HTL in the blend produced as much soot as pure diesel at in chamber environment oxygen ratio of 21%, and even more soot at low oxygen ratios. It was also observed that n-butanol addition could reduce the soot emission of diesel significantly under all tested conditions. In this work, the spray and combustion characteristics of HTL and diesel blends with n-butanol added were investigated in a constant volume chamber. The in-chamber temperature and oxygen ranged from 800 to 1200 K and 21% to 13%, respectively, covering both conventional and low-temperature combustion (LTC) regimes.
Technical Paper

Research of the High Altitude Control Strategy of the Piston Aero-engine Using Two-stage Turbocharger Coupled with single Supercharging System

2019-12-19
2019-01-2211
Aiming at the high altitude operation problems for piston-type aero-engines and to improve the practical ceiling and high altitude dynamic performance, this thesis analyzes a controllable three-stage composite supercharging system, using a two-stage turbocharger coupled supercharger method. The GT-Power simulation model of a four-cylinder boxer engine was established, and the control strategy of variable flight height was obtained. The simulation research of engine performance from 0 to 20,000 meters above sea level has been carried out, which shows that the engine power is at the same level as the plain condition, and it could still maintain 85.28 percent of power even at the height of 20,000 meters, which meets the flight requirements of the aircraft.
Technical Paper

Influence of Intake Valve Lift on Flow Capacity of Intake Port

2019-04-02
2019-01-0223
A three-dimensional model of a diesel engine intake port was established and was verified by steady-flow test. Based on this model, the influence of intake valve lift on the flow capacity of intake port was studied and a design method of maximum valve lift was put forward. The results show that, under different intake pressure and relative pressure difference conditions, the discharge coefficient increases first and then converges with the increase of valve lift. Under the same valve lift condition, with the increase of relative pressure difference, the discharge coefficient decreases slightly in subsonic state and decreases sharply from subsonic state to supersonic state, but the mass flow rate increases slightly. The optimum ratio of valve lift and valve seat diameter is related to relative pressure difference, it increases first and then keeps constant with the increase of relative pressure difference.
Technical Paper

Macroscopic and Microscopic Characteristics of Flash Boiling Spray with Binary Fuel Mixtures

2019-04-02
2019-01-0274
Flash boiling has drawn much attention recently for its ability to enhance spray atomization and vaporization, while providing better fuel/air mixing for gasoline direct injection engines. However, the behaviors of flash boiling spray with multi-component fuels have not been fully discovered. In this study, isooctane, ethanol and the mixtures of the two with three blend ratios were chosen as the fuels. Measurements were performed with constant fuel temperature while ambient pressures were varied to adjust the superheated degree. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray were investigated using Diffused Back-Illumination (DBI) imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). Comparisons between flash boiling sprays with single component and binary fuel mixtures were performed to study the effect of fuel properties on spray structure as well as atomization and vaporization processes.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics in a Constant Volume Chamber of Diesel Blended with HTL

2019-04-02
2019-01-0578
There are a few different ways in which biofuels can be sourced, with the most popular coming from agricultural sources. An alternative approach is to utilize biowaste. An estimated 20 million dry tons of volatile organic compounds, or biowaste, is annually deposited in US municipal wastewaters. Most of this biowaste energy content is not recovered and, as a result, the biowaste could be a massive potential source of renewable energy. Biocrude diesel is converted from wet biowaste via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Three types of feedstocks (algae, swine manure, and food processing waste) were converted into biocrude oil via HTL. From the previous experiments done in an AVL 5402 single-cylinder diesel engine, it was observed that the presence of 20% of HTL in the blend performed similarly during combustion to pure diesel. By studying these mixtures in a constant volume chamber, these observations could be compared to the results in the diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends under Flash-Boiling Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0297
The spray structure and vaporization processes of flash-boiling sprays in a constant volume chamber under a wide range of superheated conditions were experimentally investigated by a high speed imaging technique. The Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector was used. Four fuels including gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol blends E30 and E50 were investigated. Spray penetration length and spray width were correlated to the degree of the superheated degree, which is the ratio of the ambient pressure to saturated vapor pressure (pa/ps). It is found that parameter pa/ps is critical in describing the spray transformation under flash-boiling conditions. Three distinct stages namely the slight flash-boiling, the transition flash-boiling, and the flare flash-boiling are identified to describe the transformation of spray structures.
Technical Paper

Proceedings of Real Driving Emission (RDE) Measurement in China

2018-04-03
2018-01-0653
Light-duty China-6, which is among the most stringent vehicle exhaust emission standards globally, mandates the monitoring and reporting of real driving emissions (RDE) from July, 2023. In the process of regulation promulgation and verification, more than 300 RDE tests have been performed on over 50 China-5 and China-6 certified models. This technical paper endeavors to summarize the experience of RDE practice in China, and discuss the impacts of some boundary conditions (including vehicle dynamic parameters, data processing methods, hybrid propulsion and testing altitude) on the result of RDE measurement. In general, gasoline passenger cars confront few challenges to meet the upcoming RDE NOx requirement, but some China-5 certified samples, even powered by naturally-aspirated engines may have PN issues. PN emissions from some GDI-hybrid powertrain systems also need further reduction to meet China-6 RDE requirements.
Technical Paper

Design and Optimization of Injector Based on Voice Coil Motor

2017-10-08
2017-01-2301
The electronic control of direct injection fuel system, which could improve engine fuel efficiency, dynamics and engine emission performance through good atomization, precise control of fuel injection time and improvement of fuel-gas mixture, is the key technology to achieve the stratified combustion and lean combustion. In this paper, a direct injection injector that based on voice coil motor was designed aiming at the technical characteristics of one 800cc two-stroke cam-less engine. Prior to a one - dimensional simulation model of injector was established by AMEsim and the maximal fuel injection demand was met via the optimization of the main parameters of the injector, the structure of the voice coil motor was optimized by magnetic equivalent circuit method. After that, the maximal flow rate of the injector was verified by the injector bench test while the atomization characteristic of the injector was verified by using a high-speed camera.
Technical Paper

Effects of Nozzle Hole Diameter on Diesel Sprays in Constant Injection Mass Condition

2017-10-08
2017-01-2300
As known, the constant injection mass is a criterion for measuring the thermal efficiency of diesel engines. In this study, the effects of nozzle hole diameter on diesel free-spray characteristics were investigated in constant injection mass condition. The experiment was performed in a constant volume combustion chamber equipped with a high pressure common-rail injector that can change nozzles. Three single-hole axis nozzles with different hole diameters were used. High speed camera and Schlieren visualization set-up were used to capture the spray behaviors of liquid phase and vapor phase respectively. For liquid phase spray, the higher nozzle hole diameter, the higher were the liquid phase spray penetration rate and the saturated liquid phase spray penetration length. The saturated liquid phase spray penetration length wound not grow but oscillate around different mean values at the steady stage.
Technical Paper

A Cylinder Pressure Correction Method Based on Calculated Polytropic Exponent

2017-10-08
2017-01-2252
The acquisition of more authentic cylinder pressure data is the basis of engine combustion analysis. Due to the multiple advantages, quartz piezoelectric pressure transducers are generally applied to the measurement of the cylinder pressure. However, these transducers can only produce dynamic cylinder pressure data which may be significantly different from the actual values. Thus, the cylinder pressure data need to be corrected through a certain method, while different cylinder pressure correction methods will cause result divergences of the combustion analysis. This paper aims to acquire a proper cylinder pressure correction method by carrying out theoretical analysis based on the polytropic process in the compression stroke as well as the experimental research of the cylinder pressure of a turbocharged eight-cylinder diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Fraction on Laminar Flame Characteristics of Methanol-Hydrogen-Air Mixture at Atmospheric Pressure

2017-10-08
2017-01-2277
Methanol has been regarded as a potential transportation fuel due to its advanced combustion characteristics and flexible source. However, it is suffering from misfire and high HC emissions problems under cold start and low load conditions either on methanol SI engine or on methanol/diesel dual fuel engine. Hydrogen is a potential addition that can enhance the combustion of methanol due to its high flammability and combustion stability. In the current work, the effect of hydrogen fraction on the laminar flame characteristics of methanol- hydrogen-air mixture under varied equivalence ratio was investigated on a constant volume combustion chamber system coupled with a schlieren setup. Experiments were performed over a wide range of equivalence ratio of the premixed charge, varied from 0.8 to 1.4, as well as different hydrogen fraction, 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% (n/n). All tests were carried out at fixed temperature and pressure of 400K and 0.1MPa.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Volume Ratio on the Combustion Characteristics of CNG-Diesel Dual-Fuel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2270
CNG-diesel dual fuel combustion mode has been regarded as a practical operation strategy because it not only can remain high thermal efficiency but also make full use of an alternative fuel, natural gas. However, it is suffering from misfire and high HC emissions under cold start and low load conditions. As known, hydrogen has high flammability. Thus, a certain proportion of hydrogen can be added in the natural gas (named HCNG) to improve combustion performance. In this work, the effect of hydrogen volume ratio on combustion characteristics was investigated on an optically accessible single-cylinder CNG-diesel engine using a Phantom v7.3 color camera. HCNG was compressed into the tank under different hydrogen volume ratios varied from 0% to 30%, while the energy substitution rate of` HCNG remained at 70%.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on the Effects of Intake Parameters on Diesel LTC Combustion and Emission

2017-10-08
2017-01-2259
The diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) can keep high efficiency and produce low emission. Which has been widely studied at home and abroad in recent years. The combustion control parameters, such as injection pressure, injection timing, intake oxygen concentration, intake pressure, intake temperature and so on, have an important influence on the combustion and emission of diesel LTC. Therefore, to realize different combustion modes and combustion mode switch of diesel engine, it is necessary to accurately control the injection parameters and intake parameters of diesel engine. In this work, experimental study has been carried out to analyze the effect of intake oxygen concentration, intake pressure and intake temperature in combustion and emission characteristics of diesel LTC, such as in-cylinder pressure, temperature, heat release rate, NOx and soot emission.
Technical Paper

Comparison Study on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of ABE/IBE-Diesel Blends in a Common-Rreail Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2321
Bio-butanol has been considered as a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines due to its advantageous physicochemical properties. However, the further development of bio-butanol is inhibited by its high recovery cost and low production efficiency. Hence, the goal of this study is to evaluate two upstream products from different fermentation processes of bio-butanol, namely acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) and isopropanol-butanol-ethanol (IBE), as alternative fuels for diesel. The experimental comparison is conducted on a single-cylinder and common-rail diesel engine under various main injection timings (MIT) and equivalent engine load (EEL) conditions. The experimental results show that ABE and IBE significantly affect the combustion phasing. The start of combustion (SOC) is retarded when ABE and IBE are mixed with diesel. Furthermore, the ABE/IBE-diesel blends are more sensitive to the changes in MIT compared with that of pure diesel.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Ethanol-Butanol Ratio on the Droplet Behavior During Impact onto a Heated Surface

2017-10-08
2017-01-2289
Droplets impacting onto the heated surface is a typical phenomenon either in CI engines or in GDI SI engines, which is regarded significant for their air-fuel mixing. Meanwhile, alcohols including ethanol and butanol, has been widely studied as internal combustion engine alternative fuels due to their excellent properties. In this paper, under different component ratio conditions, the ethanol-butanol droplet impacting onto the heated aluminum surface has been studied experimentally. The falling height of the droplets were set at 5cm. A high-speed camera, set at 512×512pixels, 5000 fps and 20 μs of exposure time, was used to visualize the droplet behavior impinging onto the hot aluminum surface. The impact regimes of the binary droplet were identified. The result showed that the Leidenfrost temperature of droplets was affected by the ratio of ethanol to butanol. The higher the content of butanol in the droplet, the higher the Leidenfrost temperature.
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