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Technical Paper

A Study on Control Logic Design for Power Seat

2019-04-02
2019-01-0466
The large luxury sedan seat has a 22-way Movement. It offers a wide range of adjustments to enhance passenger comfort performance while it has many constraints on movement in constrained indoor space. In addition, the power seat is operated by a motor, which makes it difficult for the user to determine the amount of adjustment, unlike determining the amount of adjustment by the power and feel of a person, such as manual seat adjustment. IMS, one-touch mode, is also constrained by parameters such as indoor space package, user's lifestyle, etc. during function playback. This paper aims to design the seat control logic to achieve the best seat comfort while satisfying each constraint. The results of this study are as follows. Increase robustness of power seat control logic. Provide optimal adjustments and comfort at each location. Offer differentiated custom control and seating modes for each seat. Improve customer satisfaction and quality by upgrading software.
Technical Paper

Response Decoupling Method in Mount Design with Emphasis on Transient Load Conditions

2019-01-18
2018-01-5046
This research examined the focused design, elastic design, energy decoupling, and torque roll axis (TRA) decoupling methods for mount optimization design. Requiring some assumptions, these methods are invalid for some load conditions and constraints. The linearity assumption is advantageous and simplifies both design and optimization analysis, facilitating engineering applications. However, the linearity is rarely seen in real-world applications, and there is no practical method to directly measure the reaction forces in the three locally orthogonal directions, preventing validation of existing methods by experimental results. For nonlinear system identification, there are additional challenges such as unobservable internal variables and the uncertainty of measured data.
Technical Paper

Incorporation of Friction Material Surface Inhomogeneity in Complex Eigenvalue Analysis to Improve the Accuracy of Brake Squeal Analysis

2018-10-05
2018-01-1873
The sliding surface of the brake friction material is not uniform but composed of random contact plateaus with a broad pressure distribution, which are known to closely related to the triggering mechanism of friction induced noise and vibrations. The non-uniform contact plateaus are attributed to the various ingredients in the friction material with a broad range of physical properties and morphology and the size and stiffness of the plateau play crucial roles in determining the friction instability. The incorporation of friction surface inhomogeneity is, therefore, crucial and has to be counted to improve the accuracy of the numerical calculation to simulate brake noise. In this study, the heterogeneous nature of the friction material surface was employed in the simulation to improve the correlation between numerical simulations and experimental results.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Slot Disc Shape for Improving Brake Fade Performance

2018-10-05
2018-01-1883
Due to improvements in vehicle powertrain performance, friction material fade performance is becoming an important topic. For this reason, needs for studies to improve thermal characteristics of the brake system is increasing. Methods for improving the fade characteristics have several ways to improve the thermal characteristic of friction materials and increase disc capacity. However, increasing disc capacity(size) have some risk of weight and cost rise, and friction factor improvements in friction material tend to cause other problems, such as increasing squeal wire brush noise and increasing metal pick up on disc surface. Therefore, a slot disc study is needed to overcome the problems discussed previously. Currently, there is few research history for slot disc related to fade and metal pickup improvements.
Technical Paper

An Application of Acoustic Metamaterial for Reducing Noise Transfer through Car Body Panels

2018-06-13
2018-01-1566
This paper presents the design of an additional structure based on acoustic metamaterial (AMM) for the reduction of vibro-acoustic transfer function of a car body panel. As vehicles are lighter and those engine forces are bigger recently, it has become more difficult to reduce the vibration and noise transfer through body panels by using just conventional NVH countermeasures. In this research, a new approach based on AMM is tried to reduce the vibration and noise transfer of a firewall panel. First, a unit cell structure based on the locally resonant metamaterial is devised and the unit cell’s design variables are studied to increase the wave attenuation in the stop band of a dispersion curve, where the Floquet-Bloch theorem is used to estimate the dispersion curve of a two-dimensional periodic structure. Also, the vibration transfer and the vibro-acoustic transfer are predicted in a FE model of meta-plate which is composed of a periodic system of the devised unit cell.
Technical Paper

Research on Stick & Sprag-Slip Phenomenon of Door Waist Belts

2018-04-03
2018-01-0674
The squeak noise generated during the moving of the door glass has a influence on the performance of vehicles felt by the consumer. In order to improve the noise, it is necessary to understand the principle of a friction vibration. In this paper, it is confirmed that the principle on the waist belt is most closely related to stick-slip and sprag-slip among various vibration characteristics. Stick-slip is expressed by energy accumulation and divergence due to difference in static and dynamic friction coefficient. Sprag-slip define instability of geometric structure due to angle of lips on the belt. In this paper, the physical model and the energy equation are established for the above two phenomena. Stick-slip can be solved by decreasing the difference of the static and dynamic friction coefficient. Sprag-slip is caused by the ratio of compressive and shear stiffness of the lips. The belt uses flocking to ensure durability, not coating.
Technical Paper

Road Classification Based on System Response with Consideration of Tire Enveloping

2018-04-03
2018-01-0550
This paper presents a road classifier based on the system response with consideration of the tire enveloping. The aim is to provide an easily applicable yet accurate road classification approach for automotive engineers. For this purpose, tire enveloping effect is firstly modeled based on the flexible roller contact (FRC) theory, then transfer functions between road input and commonly used suspension responses i.e. the sprung mass acceleration, unsprung mass acceleration, and rattle space, are calculated for a quarter vehicle model. The influence of parameter variations, vehicle velocity, and measurement noise on transfer functions are comprehensively analyzed to derive the most suitable system response thereafter. In addition, this paper proposes a vehicle speed correction mechanism to further improve the classification accuracy under complex driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy Observer for Nonlinear Vehicle System Roll Behavior with Coupled Lateral and Vertical Dynamics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0559
The study of vehicle state estimation performance especially on the aspect of observer-based control for improving vehicle ride comfort and road handling is a challenging task for vehicle industry. Since vehicle roll behavior with various road excitations act an important part of driving safety, how to accurately obtain vehicle state under various driving scenes are of great concern. However, previous researches seldom consider coupling relation between vehicle vertical and lateral response with steering input under various road excitation. To address this issue, comprehension analyses on vehicle roll state estimation with coupled input are present in this paper. A full-car nonlinear Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is first created to describe vehicle lateral and vertical coupling dynamics.
Technical Paper

A Novel Driver Model for Real-time Simulation on Electric Powertrain Test Bench

2017-10-08
2017-01-2460
In this paper, a novel driver model is proposed to track vehicle speed in MIL (Model-in-the-Loop) test system, which has structural consistency with HIL (Hardware-in-the-Loop) test system. First, the MIL test system which contains models of driver, vehicle and test bench is established. Second, according to the connections of the established models in Matlab/Simulink environment, the vehicle speed is calculated in vehicle model. Emphatically, through the deviation between driving cycle speed and calculated vehicle speed, PI controller in driver model adjusts the vehicle speed to ideal point through sending the torque command to drive motor, the ILC (Iterative Learning Control) controller modifies and stores P value of PI controller. Then, in order to obtain the better modification of PI controller, iterative learning control algorithm is deeply researched in term of types and parameters.
Technical Paper

Fluid-Solid Coupled Heat Transfer Investigation of Wet Clutches

2017-10-08
2017-01-2442
The prediction of temperature distribution and variation of oil-cooled sliding disk pair is essential for the design of wet clutches and brakes in a vehicle transmission system. A two-phase coupled heat transfer model is established in the study and some fluid-solid coupled heat transfer simulations are performed to investigate the thermal behaviors of wet clutch during sliding by CFD method. Both cooling liquid and grooved solid disks are contained in the heat transfer model and the heat convection due to the cooling liquid in the radial grooves is also considered by fluid-solid coupled transient heat transfer simulations. The temperature distribution and variation of the grooved disk are discussed and analyzed in detail. The results indicate that the temperature distribution on the grooved disk is nonuniform. The temperature within the middle radius area is higher than that in the inner and outer radius area.
Technical Paper

Research on Opposed Piston Two-Stroke Engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle by Thermodynamic Simulation

2017-10-08
2017-01-2408
The Opposed Piston Two-Stroke (OPTS) engine has many advantages on power density, fuel tolerance, fuel flexibility and package space. A type of self-balanced opposed-piston folded-crank train two-stroke engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was studied in this paper. AVL BOOST was used for the thermodynamic simulation. It was a quasi-steady, filling-and-emptying flow analysis -- no intake or exhaust dynamics were simulated. The results were validated against experimental data. The effects of high altitude environment on engine performance have been investigated. Moreover, the matching between the engine and turbocharger was designed and optimized for different altitude levels. The results indicated that, while the altitude is above 6000m, a multi-stage turbocharged engine system need to be considered and optimized for the UAV.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Rear Brake Grinding Noise by Rear Suspension Types

2017-09-17
2017-01-2486
Brake grinding noise is caused by the friction of the disc and pads. The friction generates vibration and it transmits to the body via the chassis system. We called it structure-borne noise. To improve the noise in the vehicle development, the aspects of chassis or body's countermeasure occurs many problems, cost and time. In this reason many brake companies try to make solution with brake system, like brake pad materials or disc surface condition. However the countermeasures of excitation systems also have a lot of risk. It could be occurred side-effects of braking performance, and need to re-verify brake noise like Creep-groan, Groan, Squeal, Judder and so on. For this reason, it is essential to make a robust chassis system in the initial development stage of the vehicle for the most desirable grinding noise-resistant vehicle. This paper is about rear brake grind noise path analysis and countermeasure of chassis system. There are two steps to analysis.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Voice Recognition Performance in Response to Background Noise and Gender Based Frequency

2017-06-05
2017-01-1888
Voice Recognition (VR) systems have become an integral part of the infotainment systems in the current automotive industry. However, its recognition rate is impacted by external factors such as vehicle cabin noise, road noise, and internal factors which are a function of the voice engine in the system itself. This paper analyzes the VR performance under the effect of two external factors, vehicle cabin noise and the speakers’ speech patterns based on gender. It also compares performance of mid-level sedans from different manufacturers.
Journal Article

A Novel Method for Objective Evaluation of Interior Sound in a Passenger Car and Its Application to the Design of Interior Sound in a Luxury Passenger Car

2017-06-05
2017-01-1758
Recently the interior sound is actively generated by the active sound design (ASD) device in a passenger car. Therefore, the objective evaluation method for the sound quality of actively designed sounds is required. In previous research, the sound quality of interior sound has been presented with powerful and pleasant for the existing passenger car. This paper presents a novel approach method for the objective evaluation of powerfulness and pleasantness of actively designed interior sound. The powerfulness has been evaluated based on the degreed of modulation and a quantity of low frequency booming of the sound in the paper. On the other hand, the pleasantness is evaluated based on the slope ratio of harmonic orders per octave in frequency domain. These evaluation methods are successfully applied to the objective evaluation of luxury passenger car.
Technical Paper

A Research on Brand Sound Positioning and Implementing with Active Sound Design

2017-06-05
2017-01-1754
This paper aims to establish a systematic process of developing a brand driving sound. Firstly, principal factors of a brand sound identity are extracted from factor analysis of many sample cars. As a result, brand sound positioning map is drawn using jury test data. Also, the multiple regression analysis of subjective and objective test results is carried. As a result, the principal factors are expressed by objective test data and brand sound positioning map can be easily updated from the measurement data. In addition, what should be improved for designing a target sound is reviewed. Secondly, various technologies of target sound design are discussed to involve the brand identity and vehicle’s character in driving sound. Also, an efficient tool to implement the target sound with an active sound design (ASD) system in a vehicle is introduced. This tool enables to efficiently design, tune and simulate a target sound for ASD system in a laboratory.
Journal Article

On the Use of Driver-in-the-Loop (DIL) Systems in Commercial Vehicle Chassis Development

2017-01-10
2017-26-0242
A vehicle simulation model is developed, validated and integrated into a closed-loop virtual driving environment using a state-of-the-art hexapod driving simulator. Thirty variant states are implemented and evaluated subjectively on steering and handling performance quality and quantity. Standard open-loop objective testing manoeuvres are simulated and performance metrics are calculated, allowing for a systematic cross-correlation process. Graphical analysis of the correlation metrics proves that chassis changes may accurately be felt through the simulator interface. It is proposed how obtained correlation models may serve for driver-feel optimizing target setting in early vehicle development stages, frontloading a great deal of costly prototype testing. System requirements are established and benefits and limitations are portrayed.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Filtration Model for the Power-shift Steering Transmission

2016-04-05
2016-01-1139
Within the hydraulic shifting circuit of power-shift steering transmission, the performance of filter is generally characterized by the theoretical filtration ratio. However in practical work, the actual filtration ratio is far less than the theoretical ratio. On the basis of investigation on the structural characteristics, the oil flowing distribution and the filter mechanisms, the re-filtering rate ω and recontaminative rate θ are defined to simulate the actual filtering process. Therefore, the dynamic filtration ratio is modelled and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink to investigate that how the filtering rate ω and θ influence the dynamic filtration ratio and the deviation between the dynamic ratio and theoretical ratio. Afterwards, the variation of dynamic filtration ratio is tested through a filtration experiment under the circumstances of various flow rate, temperature and pressure.
Journal Article

Study on Repeated-Root Modes in Substructure Modal Composition Analysis

2016-04-05
2016-01-0477
The dynamic properties of disc rotor play important role in the NVH performance of a disc brake system. Disc rotor in general is a centrosymmetric structure. It has many repeated-root modes within the interested frequency range and they may have significant influence on squeal occurrence. A pair of repeated-root modes is in nature one vibration mode. However, in current complex eigenvalue analysis model and relevant analysis methods, repeated-root modes are processed separately. This may lead to contradictory result. This paper presents methods to deal with repeated-root modes in substructure modal composition (SMC) analysis to avoid the contradiction. Through curve-fitting technique, the modal shape coefficients of repeated-root modes are expressed in an identical formula. This formula is used in SMC analysis to obtain an integrated SMC value to represent the total influence of two repeated-root modes.
Technical Paper

A Case Study: Application of Analytical and Numerical Techniques to Squeak and Rattle Analysis of a Door Assembly

2015-06-15
2015-01-2257
Squeak and rattle (S&R) problems in body structure and trim parts have become serious issues for automakers because of their influence on the initial quality perception of consumers. In this study, various CAE and experimental methods developed by Hyundai Motors for squeak and rattle analysis of door systems are reported. Friction-induced vibration and noise generation mechanisms of a door system are studied by an intelligent combination of experimental and numerical methods. It is shown that the effect of degradation of plastics used in door trims can be estimated by a numerical model using the properties obtained experimentally. Effects of changes in material properties such as Young's modulus and loss factor due to the material degradation as well as statistical variations are predicted for several door system configurations. As a new concept, the rattle and squeak index is proposed, which can be used to guide the design.
Technical Paper

Development of an Algorithm to Automatically Detect and Distinguish Squeak and Rattle Noises

2015-06-15
2015-01-2258
Squeak and rattle (S&R) noises are undesirable noises caused by friction-induced vibration or impact between surfaces. While several computer programs have been developed to automatically detect and rate S&R events over the years, no reported work has been found that can detect squeak and rattle noises and distinguish them. Because the causes of squeak noises and rattle noises are different, knowing if it is a squeak noise or rattle noise will be very helpful for automotive engineers to choose an appropriate measure to solve the problem. The authors have developed a new algorithm to differentiate squeak noises and rattle noises, and added it to the S&R detection algorithm they had developed previously. The new algorithm utilizes a combination of sound quality metrics, specifically sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength.
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