Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Journal Article

Vehicle Level Brake Drag Target Setting for EPA Fuel Economy Certification

2016-09-18
2016-01-1925
The strong focus on reducing brake drag, driven by a historic ramp-up in global fuel economy and carbon emissions standards, has led to renewed research on brake caliper drag behaviors and how to measure them. However, with the increased knowledge of the range of drag behaviors that a caliper can exhibit comes a particularly vexing problem - how should this complex range of behaviors be represented in the overall road load of the vehicle? What conditions are encountered during coastdown and fuel economy testing, and how should brake drag be measured and represented in these conditions? With the Environmental Protection Agency (amongst other regulating agencies around the world) conducting audit testing, and the requirement that published road load values be repeatable within a specified range during these audits, the importance of answering these questions accurately is elevated. This paper studies these questions, and even offers methodology for addressing them.
Journal Article

Power Dense and Robust Traction Power Inverter for the Second-Generation Chevrolet Volt Extended-Range EV

2015-04-14
2015-01-1201
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. First generation Chevrolet Volts were driven over half a billion miles in North America from October 2013 through September 2014, 74% of which were all-electric [1, 12]. For 2016, GM has developed the second-generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. By significantly re-engineering the traction power inverter module (TPIM) for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle (EREV), we were able to meet all performance targets while maintaining extremely high reliability and environmental robustness. The power switch was re-designed to achieve efficiency targets and meet thermal challenges. A novel cooling approach enables high power density while maintaining a very high overall conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Least-Enthalpy Based Control of Cabin Air Recirculation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0372
The vehicle air-conditioning system has significant impact on fuel economy and range of electric vehicles. Improving the fuel economy of vehicles therefore demand for energy efficient climate control systems. Also the emissions regulations motivate the reduced use of fuel for vehicle's cabin climate control. Solar heat gain of the passenger compartment by greenhouse effect is generally treated as the peak thermal load of the climate control system. Although the use of advanced glazing is considered first to reduce solar heat gain other means such as ventilation of parked car and recirculation of cabin air also have impetus for reducing the climate control loads.
Technical Paper

Thermal-Mechanical Durability of DOC and DPF After-treatment System for Light Heavy Pickup Truck Application

2009-11-02
2009-01-2707
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s heavy duty diesel emission standard was tightened beginning from 2007 with the introduction of ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel. Most heavy duty diesel applications were required to equip Particulate Matter (PM) after-treatment systems to meet the new tighter, emission standard. Systems utilizing Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed-Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) are a mainstream of modern diesel PM after-treatment systems. To ensure appropriate performance of the system, periodic cleaning of the PM trapped in DPF by its oxidation (a process called “regeneration”) is necessary. As a result, of this regeneration, DOC’s and DPF’s can be exposed to hundreds of thermal cycles during their lifetime. Therefore, to understand the thermo-mechanical performance of the DOC and DPF is an essential issue to evaluate the durability of the system.
Technical Paper

Application of Hydraulic Body Mounts to Reduce the Freeway Hop Shake of Pickup Trucks

2009-05-19
2009-01-2126
When pickup trucks are driven on concrete paved freeways, freeway hop shake is a major complaint. Freeway hop shake occurs when the vehicle passes over the concrete joints of the freeway which impose in-phase harmonic road inputs. These road inputs excite vehicle modes that degrade ride comfort. The worst shake level occurs when the vehicle speed is such that the road input excites the vehicle 1st bending mode and/or the rear wheel hop mode. The hop and bending mode are very close in frequency. This phenomenon is called freeway hop shake. Automotive manufacturers are searching for ways to mitigate freeway hop shake. There are several ways to reduce the shake amplitude. This paper documents a new approach using hydraulic body mounts to reduce the shake. A full vehicle analytical model was used to determine the root cause of the freeway hop shake.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Brake System Performance during Race Track/High Energy Driving Conditions with Integrated Vehicle Dynamics and Neural-Network Subsystem Models

2009-04-20
2009-01-0860
In racetrack conditions, brake systems are subjected to extreme energy loads and energy load distributions. This can lead to very high friction surface temperatures, especially on the brake corner that operates, for a given track, with the most available traction and the highest energy loading. Individual brake corners can be stressed to the point of extreme fade and lining wear, and the resultant degradation in brake corner performance can affect the performance of the entire brake system, causing significant changes in pedal feel, brake balance, and brake lining life. It is therefore important in high performance brake system design to ensure favorable operating conditions for the selected brake corner components under the full range of conditions that the intended vehicle application will place them under. To address this task in an early design stage, it is helpful to use brake system modeling tools to analyze system performance.
Technical Paper

Early Noise Analysis for Robust Quiet Brake Design

2009-04-20
2009-01-0858
At the early design stage it is easier to achieve impacts on the brake noise. However most noise analyses are applied later in the development stage when the design space is limited and changes are costly. Early noise analysis is seldom applied due to lack of credible inputs for the finite element modeling, the sensitive nature of the noise, and reservations on the noise event screening of the analysis. A high quality brake finite element model of good components’ and system representation is the necessary basis for credible early noise analysis. That usually requires the inputs from existing production hardware. On the other hand in vehicle braking the frequency contents and propensity of many noise cases are sensitive to minor component design modifications, environmental factors and hardware variations in mass production. Screening the noisy modes and their sensitivity levels helps confirm the major noisy event at the early design stage.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Robust Optimization for Performances of Noise & Vibration and Impact Hardness & Memory Shake

2009-04-20
2009-01-0341
This paper demonstrates the benefit of using simulation and robust optimization for the problem of balancing vehicle noise, vibration, and ride performance over road impacts. The psychophysics associated with perception of vehicle performance on an impact is complex because the occupants encounter both tactile and audible stimuli. Tactile impact vibration has multiple dimensions, such as impact hardness and memory shake. Audible impact sound also affects occupant perception of the vehicle quality. This paper uses multiple approaches to produce the similar, robust, optimized tuning strategies for impact performance. A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project was established to help identify a balanced, optimized solution. The CAE simulations were combined with software tools such as iSIGHT and internally developed Kriging software to identify response surfaces and find optimal tuning.
Technical Paper

Opportunities and Challenges for Blended 2-Way SCR/DPF Aftertreatment Technologies

2009-04-20
2009-01-0274
Diesel engines offer better fuel economy compared to their gasoline counterpart, but simultaneous control of NOx and particulates is very challenging. The blended 2-way SCR/DPF is recently emerging as a compact and cost-effective technology to reduce NOx and particulates from diesel exhaust using a single aftertreatment device. By coating SCR catalysts on and inside the walls of the conventional wall-flow filter, the 2-way SCR/DPF eliminates the volume and mass of the conventional SCR device. Compared with the conventional diesel aftertreatment system with a SCR and a DPF, the 2-way SCR/DPF technology offers the potential of significant cost saving and packaging flexibility. In this study, an engine dynamometer test cell was set up to repeatedly load and regenerate the SCR/DPF devices to mimic catalyst aging experienced during periodic high-temperature soot regenerations in the real world.
Technical Paper

The CO2 Benefits of Electrification E-REVs, PHEVs and Charging Scenarios

2009-04-20
2009-01-1311
Reducing Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions is one of the major challenges for automobile manufacturers. This is driven by environmental, consumer, and regulatory demands in all major regions worldwide. For conventional vehicles, a host of technologies have been applied that improve the overall efficiency of the vehicle. This reduces CO2 contributions by directly reducing the amount of energy consumed to power a vehicle. The hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) continues this trend. However, there are limits to CO2 reduction due to improvements in efficiency alone. Other major improvements are realized when the CO2 content of the energy used to motivate vehicles is reduced. With the introduction of Extended Range Electric Vehicles (E-REVs) and Plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), electric grid energy displaces petroleum. This enables the potential for significant CO2 reductions as the CO2 per unit of electrical energy is reduced over time with the improving mix of energy sources for the electrical grid.
Technical Paper

Design and CFD Analysis of an NHRA Funny Car Body

2008-12-02
2008-01-3003
This paper describes the methodology used to design and perform a CFD analysis of a Chevrolet Impala SS Funny Car body. This body was designed for the purpose of making it available for teams to race it in the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) drag racing series beginning with the 2007 race season. Several challenges were presented in this project: (1) This was the first time a General Motors drag racing body for use in professional classes (Funny Car or otherwise) was ever designed in CAD. (2) The body was originally designed as a 2007 Chevrolet Monte Carlo. After the tooling was completed, changes in Chevrolet’s product lineup required that the body be changed to a 2007 Impala SS. (3) Budget constraints precluded CFD analysis until after the bodies were already being manufactured. There were several teams that raced the new body during the 2007 race season. One of these teams won the Funny Car Driver’s Championship.
Technical Paper

High Capacity Electric A/C Compressor with Integrated Inverter for Hybrid Automotive and Commercial Vehicles

2008-10-07
2008-01-2619
The market growth for electric-hybrid passenger vehicles has been very significant and is expected to reach nearly 25% of all vehicles sold in the US by 2015. Hybrid commercial vehicles are also being developed by several OEM's. This paper discusses the progress of Delphi Thermal Systems in developing an integrated electric compressor drive with high cooling capacity (9 kW+), sufficient for large hybrid SUV's and commercial vehicles such as Class 8 tractors with sleeper. An important driver for use of the electric compressor in the hybrid truck application is the reduction of engine idling time while maintaining comfort in the cab or sleeper. Design details of a compact 5 kW SPM motor, its inverter drive, and issues related to its integration into the compressor housing are described. Test results are given confirming excellent performance.
Technical Paper

Compatibility Study of Fluorinated Elastomers in Automatic Transmission Fluids

2008-06-23
2008-01-1619
A compatibility study was conducted on fluorinated elastomers (FKM and FEPM) in various Automatic Transmission Fluids (ATF). Representative compounds from various FKM families were tested by three major FKM raw material producers - DuPont Performance Elastomers (DPE), Dyneon and Solvay. All involved FKM compounds were tested in a newly released fluid (ATF-A) side-by-side with conventional transmission fluids, at 150°C for various time intervals per ASTM D471. In order to evaluate the fluid compatibility limits, some FKM's were tested as long as 3024 hrs, which is beyond the normal service life of seals. Tensile strength and elongation were monitored as a function of ATF exposure time. The traditional dipolymers and terpolymers showed poor resistance to the new fluid (ATF-A). Both types demonstrated significant decreases in strength and elongation after extended fluid exposure at 150°C.
Journal Article

Modeling and Simulation of Torsional Vibration of the Compliant Sprocket in Balance Chain Drive Systems

2008-06-23
2008-01-1529
The work presented in this paper outlines the development of a simulation model to aid in the design and development of a compliant sprocket for balancer drives. A design with dual-mass flywheel and a crank-mounted compliant chain sprocket greatly reduces interior noise levels due to chain meshing. However, experimental observations showed the compliant sprocket can enter into resonance and generate excessive vibration energy during startup. Special features are incorporated into the compliant sprocket design to absorb and dissipate this energy. Additional damper spring rate, high hysteresis and large motion angle that overlap the driving range may solve the problem during engine start-up period. This work develops a simulation model to help interpret the measured data and rank the effectiveness of the design alternatives. A Multibody dynamics system (MBS) model of the balancer chain drive has been developed, validated, and used to investigate the chain noise.
Technical Paper

Stability Analysis of Solid Axle, Torque Arm Suspension Vehicles under Heavy Acceleration and Braking Events

2008-04-14
2008-01-1144
Power-hop is a self-excited and potential locally unstable torsional vibration of a vehicle's driveline, caused by stick and slip of the tire. It is especially prevalent in high-powered cars and trucks, under heavy acceleration. Torque arms have been used to reduce power-hop for many solid axle suspension vehicles, mostly trucks and old rear wheel drive sports cars. It has long been known that the shortest torque arm easily reduces power-hop, but will increase hop under braking (braking-hop). The fundamental mechanism of torque arm effects on solid axle suspension vehicles, however, has not yet been fully explained. This study explains the stability of solid axle, torque arm suspension vehicles under heavy acceleration and braking. Analytical techniques utilize conventional linear analysis and a non-linear coupling force in a 4 degree of freedom dynamic model.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Cu-Based SCR/DPF Technology for Diesel Exhaust Emission Control

2008-04-14
2008-01-0072
Recently, a new technology, termed 2-way SCR/DPF by the authors, has been developed by several catalyst suppliers for diesel exhaust emission control. Unlike a conventional emission control system consisting of an SCR catalyst followed by a catalyzed DPF, a wall-flow filter is coated with SCR catalysts for controlling both NOx and PM emissions in a single catalytic converter, thus reducing the overall system volume and cost. In this work, the potential and limitations of the Cu/Zeolite-based SCR/DPF technology for meeting future emission standards were evaluated on a pick-up truck equipped with a prototype light-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Modeling Costs and Fuel Economy Benefits of Lightweighting Vehicle Closure Panels

2008-04-14
2008-01-0370
This paper illustrates a methodology in which complete material-manufacturing process cases for closure panels, reinforcements, and assembly are modeled and compared in order to identify the preferred option for a lightweight closure design. First, process-based cost models are used to predict the cost of lightweighting the closure set of a sample midsized sports utility vehicle (SUV) via material and process substitution. Weight savings are then analyzed using a powertrain simulation to understand the impact of lightweighting on fuel economy. The results are evaluated in the context of production volume and total mass change.
Technical Paper

Brake Noise Analysis with Lining Wear

2008-04-14
2008-01-0823
It is well known that lining reduction through wear affects contact pressure profile and noise generation. Due to high complexity in brake noise analysis, many factors were not included in previous analyses. In this paper, a new analysis process is performed by running brake “burnishing” cycles first, followed by noise analysis. In the paper, brake lining reduction due to wear is assumed to be proportional to the applied brake pressure with ABAQUS analysis. Brake pads go through four brake application-releasing cycles until the linings settle to a more stable pressure distribution. The resulting pressure profiles show lining cupping and high pressure spots shifting. The pressure distributions are compared to TekScan measurements. Brake noise analysis is then conducted with complex eigenvalue analysis steps; the resulting stability chart is better correlated to testing when the wear is comprehended.
Journal Article

The Electrification of the Automobile: From Conventional Hybrid, to Plug-in Hybrids, to Extended-Range Electric Vehicles

2008-04-14
2008-01-0458
A key element of General Motors' Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy is the electrification of the automobile. The objectives of this strategy are reduced fuel consumption, reduced emissions and increased energy security/diversification. The introduction of hybrid vehicles was one of the first steps as a result of this strategy. To determine future opportunities and direction, an extensive study was completed to better understand the ability of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) and Extended-Range Electric Vehicles (E-REV) to address societal challenges. The study evaluated real world representative driving datasets to understand actual vehicle usage. Vehicle simulations were conducted to evaluate the merits of PHEV and E-REV configurations. As derivatives of conventional full hybrids, PHEVs have the potential to deliver a significant reduction in petroleum usage.
Technical Paper

Motor Vehicle Fire Investigation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0555
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) publishes NFPA 921, “Guide for Fire and Explosion Investigations” (1) on generally a three to four year cycle. This guide includes a chapter on the investigation of motor vehicle fires. For the new 2008 edition of this publication the SAE and the NFPA worked closely together in the revision of this chapter. This paper provides a broad overview of the revised chapter and summarizes the major revisions. By using SAE participation in the chapter revision, engineers familiar with or even directly involved in the design of the vehicle systems discussed, helped to develop many of the system descriptions included in the revised chapter. The revised Motor Vehicle chapter like the parent document is both a consensus document and an effective guide which provides origin and cause analysis of motor vehicle fires, an investigative process consistent with principles stated throughout NFPA 921 and adherence to scientific methods.
X