Characterization of Gaseous Emissions from Blended Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles during High-Power Cold-Starts
There is a distinct difference between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the market today. One key distinction that can be made is to classify a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) according to its operational behavior in charge depleting (CD) mode. Some PHEVs are capable of using the electric-only propulsion system to achieve all-electric operation for all driving conditions in CD mode, including full power performance. In contrast, some PHEVs, henceforth termed “blended PHEVs”, cannot satisfy the power requirements of all driving conditions with the electric-only propulsion system and occasionally utilize blended CD operation whereby it is necessary to blend the use of the internal combustion (IC) engine with the use of the electric motor(s) to help power the vehicle.