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Journal Article

Evaluation of PM Measurement Precision and the Quivalency of the Single and Three Filter Sampling Methods for LEV III FTP Standards

Present motor vehicle particulate matter (PM) emission measurement regulations (Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 40 Part 1065, 1066) require gravimetric determination of PM mass collected onto filter media from dilute exhaust. To improve the current sampling and measurement procedures for TIER 3 PM emissions standard of 3 mg/mile, CFR part 1066 adopted five alternative PM sampling options. One option of great interest is sampling the entire test using a single flow-weighed filter rather than the conventional three-filter (one filter per test phase) approach. The single filter method could lessen the time needed for gravimetric determination by reducing the quantity of filters used for a test and possibly reduce the uncertainty in gravimetric measurements, particularly at sub 1 mg/mile PM levels. This study evaluates the single filter and, to a limited extent, the 2-filter alternatives adopted in 40 CFR Part 1066.
Technical Paper

Developing the AC17 Efficiency Test for Mobile Air Conditioners

Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) have collaborated over the past two years to develop an efficiency test for mobile air conditioner (MAC) systems. Because the effect of efficiency differences between different MAC systems and different technologies is relatively small compared to overall vehicle fuel consumption, quantifying these differences has been challenging. The objective of this program was to develop a single dynamic test procedure that is capable of discerning small efficiency differences, and is generally representative of mobile air conditioner usage in the United States. The test was designed to be conducted in existing test facilities, using existing equipment, and within a sufficiently short time to fit standard test facility scheduling. Representative ambient climate conditions for the U.S. were chosen, as well as other test parameters, and a solar load was included.
Technical Paper

Particulate Mass and Number Emissions from Light-duty Low Emission Gasoline Vehicles

Particulate matter (PM) emitted from light-duty gasoline powered vehicles is under increasing scrutiny due to potential adverse health effects and on ever increasing number of vehicles in the fleet. In this program, a group of California ULEV II and SULEV II certified light-duty gasoline vehicles were tested for PM mass and number emissions and compared with older model LEV I certified gasoline vehicles under the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) test cycle. PM mass and number emissions were collected from a Constant Volume Sampling (CVS) full dilution system. PM mass samples were collected with the gravimetric method. Filter conditioning and weighing procedures are in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1065. Total particles (solid and volatile) were measured using multiple fast response particle counting instruments including a TSI Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) and two Condensation Particle Counters (CPC).
Technical Paper

Performance of Partial Flow Sampling Systems Relative to Full Flow CVS for Determination of Particulate Emissions under Steady-State and Transient Diesel Engine Operation

The use of a partial flow sampling system (PFSS) to measure nonroad steady-state diesel engine particulate matter (PM) emissions is a technique for certification approved by a number of regulatory agencies around the world including the US EPA. Recently, there have been proposals to change future nonroad tests to include testing over a nonroad transient cycle. PFSS units that can quantify PM over the transient cycle have also been discussed. The full flow constant volume sampling (CVS) technique has been the standard method for collecting PM under transient engine operation. It is expensive and requires large facilities as compared to a typical PFSS. Despite the need for a cheaper alternative to the CVS, there has been a concern regarding how well the PM measured using a PFSS compared to that measured by the CVS. In this study, three PFSS units, including AVL SPC, Horiba MDLT, and Sierra BG-2 were investigated in parallel with a full flow CVS.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Fluorocarbon Polymer Bag Material for Near Zero Exhaust Emission Measurement

When the California Air Resources Board (ARB) adopted automotive exhaust emission standards for Super Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicles (SULEV), new challenges were encountered for accurately measuring exhaust emissions. This is especially true for measuring NMOG emissions (NMHC and carbonyls) where the SULEV standard is 0.010 g/mi. One of the challenges in accurately measuring NMHC emissions is to find a clean sample bag material that has no or very low outgassing of hydrocarbons. Tedlar, the bag material commonly used for exhaust emission sampling, has been found to emit N,N- dimethylacetamide (DMAc), which interferes with hydrocarbon measurements and can contribute to significant error in SULEV hydrocarbon emission measurements. Several fluorocarbon materials were tested for hydrocarbon (HC) outgassing and carbon dioxide (CO2) permeation. The materials include Tedlar, Baked Tedlar, KynarFlex 2750, Baked KynarFlex 2800, Teflon FEP, TFM TFE, Tefzel, and Halar.
Technical Paper

Development of Low-Emissions Small Off-Road Engines

The purpose of this project was to modify existing small off-road engines to meet ARB's originally proposed 1999 emissions standards. A particular point was to show that compliance could be attained without the need to redesign the base engines. Four high-sales volume, ARB-certified 1997 model engines were selected from the following categories: 1) handheld two-stroke engine, 2) handheld four-stroke engine, 3) non-handheld side-valve engine, and 4) a non-handheld overhead-valve engine. Engines were selected, procured, and baseline emission tested using applicable ARB test procedures. Appropriate emission control strategies were then selected and applied to the four engines. Emission reduction strategies used included air/fuel ratio optimization, and catalytic aftertreatment. Following the development of the four emission-controlled engines, final, certification-quality emissions tests were performed. All four engines met ARB's original 1999 Tier 2 emission standards after development.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the Exhaust Emissions from California Phase 1 (without oxygenates) and Phase 2 (with oxygenates) Fuel:A Case Study of 11 Passenger Vehicles

While most studies addressing the fuel effects are based on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), there are limited studies investigating the fuel effects outside FTP test conditions. In this study, we investigated the differences in exhaust emissions from California Phase 1 to Phase 2 reformulated gasoline over a wide range of speed and ambient temperatures. Eleven catalyst equipped passenger vehicles were tested. The vehicles were comprised of three fuel delivery system configurations, namely, three from carburetor (CARBU), three from throttle body injection (TBI), and five from multi-port fuel injection (MPFI) group. Each vehicle was given 60 tests with the combination of two reformulated fuels: Phase 1 (without oxygenates) and Phase 2 (with oxygenates), three temperatures (50, 75, and 100 °F), and ten speed cycles (average speed ranges from 4 mph to 65 mph).
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Engine Smoke Opacities at High Altitude and at Sea Level

A study was conducted by the California Air Resources Board to investigate the effects that altitude has on in-use heavy-duty diesel truck smoke opacities. The understanding of these effects may allow for the establishment of a high altitude opacity standard for diesel trucks operating at or above altitudes of 5800 feet. During a three-week study, 170 heavy-duty diesel trucks were tested at an altitude of 5,820 feet using a test procedure consisting of rolling acceleration and snap idle tests. Eighty-four (84) of these trucks were recaptured and retested at an altitude of 125 feet. Results from a regression analysis indicates that, on average, truck smoke opacities increased by 23 opacity points when tested at altitudes near 6000 feet. Possible high altitude cutpoints and failure rates are also discussed.