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Technical Paper

Combined CFD and CAA Simulations with Impedance Boundary Conditions

In computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and computational aeroacoustics (CAA) simulations, the wall surface is normally treated as a purely reflective wall. However, some surface treatments are usually applied in experiments. Thus, the acoustic simulations cannot be validated by experimental results. One of the major challenges is how to define acoustically boundary conditions in a well-posed way. In aeroacoustics analysis, impedance is a quantity to characterize reflectivity and absorption of an acoustically treated surface, which may be introduced into the numerical models as a frequency-domain boundary condition. However, CFD and CAA simulations are time-domain computations, meaning the frequency-domain impedance boundary condition cannot be adopted directly. Several methods, including the three-parameter model, the z-transform method and the reflection coefficient model, were developed.
Technical Paper

High-Speed 3D Optical Sensing and Information Processing for Automotive Industry

This paper explains the basic principles behind two platform technologies that my research team has developed in the field of optical metrology and optical information processing: 1) high-speed 3D optical sensing; and 2) real-time 3D video compression and streaming. This paper will discuss how such platform technologies could benefit the automotive industry including in-situ quality control for additive manufacturing and autonomous vehicle systems. We will also discuss some of other applications that we have been working on such as crime scene capture in forensics.
Technical Paper

Friction Force Reduction for Electrical Terminals using Solution-Processed Reduced Graphene Oxide Coating

Electrical connectors and terminals are widely used in the automotive industry. It is desirable to mate the electrical connections using materials or coatings with low friction force to improve the ergonomics of the assembly process while maintaining good electrical conduction over the lifetime of the vehicle. We have previously shown that plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of graphene on gold (Au) and silver (Ag) terminals can significantly reduce the insertion force (friction force during the terminal insertion process). However, the cost of this deposition method is rather high, and its high temperature process (> 400 oC) makes it impractical for materials with low melting temperatures. For example, tin (Sn) coating with a melting temperature of 232 oC is commonly used in electrical connectors, which cannot sustain the high temperature process. In this study, reduced graphene oxide was prepared using a low-cost solution process and applied onto metallic terminals.
Technical Paper

Research on Joining High Pressure Die Casting Parts by Self-Pierce Riveting (SPR) Using Ring-Groove Die Comparing to Heat Treatment Method

Nowadays, the increasing number of structural high pressure die casting (HPDC) aluminum parts need to be joined with high strength steel (HSS) parts in order to reduce the weight of vehicle for fuel-economy considerations. Self-Pierce Riveting (SPR) has become one of the strongest mechanical joining solutions used in automotive industry in the past several decades. Joining HPDC parts with HSS parts can potentially cause joint quality issues, such as joint button cracks, low corrosion resistance and low joint strength. The appropriate heat treatment will be suggested to improve SPR joint quality in terms of cracks reduction. But the heat treatment can also result in the blister issue and extra time and cost consumption for HPDC parts. The relationship between the microstructure of HPDC material before and after heat treatment with the joint quality is going to be investigated and discussed for interpretation of cracks initiation and propagation during riveting.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Near-Field Acoustical Holography Methods Applied to Noise Source Identification

Near-Field Acoustical Holography (NAH) is an inverse process in which sound pressure measurements made in the near-field of an unknown sound source are used to reconstruct the sound field so that source distributions can be clearly identified. NAH was originally based on performing spatial transforms of arrays of measured pressures and then processing the data in the wavenumber domain, a procedure that entailed the use of very large microphone arrays to avoid spatial truncation effects. Over the last twenty years, a number of different NAH methods have been proposed that can reduce or avoid spatial truncation issues: for example, Statistically Optimized Near-Field Acoustical Holography (SONAH), various Equivalent Source Methods (ESM), etc.
Technical Paper

Multi-Material Topology Optimization for Crashworthiness Using Hybrid Cellular Automata

Structures with multiple materials have now become one of the perceived necessities for automotive industry to address vehicle design requirements such as light-weight, safety, and cost. The objective of this study is to develop a design methodology for multi-material structures accountable for vehicle crash durability. The heuristic topology synthesis approach of Hybrid Cellular Automaton (HCA) framework is implemented to generate multi-material structures with the constraint on the volume fraction of the final design. The HCA framework is integrated with ordered-SIMP (solid isotropic material with penalization) interpolation, artificial material library, as well as statistical analysis of material distribution data to ensure a smooth transition between multiple practical materials during the topology synthesis.
Technical Paper

Design for Crashworthiness of Vehicle Structures Using an Extended Hybrid Cellular Automaton Method

This paper introduces a design methodology to tailor the acceleration and displacement responses of a vehicle structure subjected to a dynamic crushing load. The proposed approach is an extension of the hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) method, through which the internal energy density is uniformly distributed within the structure. The proposed approach, referred here to as an extended HCA (xHCA) method, receives the suitable combinations of volume fraction and a finite element meta-parameter for which the algorithm synthesizes the load paths that allow the desired crash response. Lower meta-parameter values lead designs obtained by traditional optimizers, while larger values lead to designs obtained by the HCA method. Simultaneous implementation of multiple values of meta-parameters is presented here as a further development of xHCA method.
Technical Paper

Structural Optimization of Thin-Walled Tubular Structures for Progressive Collapse Using Hybrid Cellular Automaton with a Prescribed Response Field

The design optimization of thin-walled tubular structures is of relevance in the automotive industry due to their low cost, ease of manufacturing and installation, and high-energy absorption efficiency. This study presents a methodology to design thin-walled tubular structures for crashworthiness applications. During an impact, thin-walled tubular structures may exhibit progressive collapse/buckling, global collapse/buckling, or mixed collapse/buckling. From a crashworthiness standpoint, the most desirable collapse mode is progressive collapse due to its high-energy absorption efficiency, stable deformation, and low peak crush force (PCF). In the automotive industry, thin-walled components have complex structural geometries. These complexities and the several loading conditions present in a crash reduce the possibility of progressive collapse. The Hybrid Cellular Automata (HCA) method has shown to be an efficient continuum-based approach in crashworthiness design.
Technical Paper

Design of a Hybrid Honeycomb Unit Cell with Enhanced In-Plane Mechanical Properties

Sandwich structures with honeycomb core are widely used in the lightweight design and impact energy absorption applications in automotive, sporting, and aerospace industries. Recently, the auxetic honeycombs with negative Poisson's ratio attract substantial attention for different engineering products. In this study, we implement Additive Manufacturing technology, experimental testing, and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to design and investigate the mechanical behavior of a novel unit cell for sandwich structure core. The new core model contains the conventional and auxetic honeycomb cells beside each other to create a Hybrid Honeycomb (HHC) for the sandwich structure. The different designs of unit cells with the same volume fraction of 15% are 3D-printed using Fused Deposition Modeling technique, and the comparative study on the mechanical behavior of conventional honeycomb, auxetic honeycomb, and HHC structures is conducted.
Technical Paper

Development of a SIL, HIL and Vehicle Test-Bench for Model-Based Design and Validation of Hybrid Powertrain Control Strategies

Hybrid powertrains with multiple sources of power have generated new control challenges in the automotive industry. Purdue University's participation in EcoCAR 2, an Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition managed by the Argonne National Laboratories and sponsored by GM and DOE, has provided an exciting opportunity to create a comprehensive test-bench for the development and validation of advanced hybrid powertrain control strategies. As one of 15 competing university teams, the Purdue EcoMakers are re-engineering a donated 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in parallel- through-the-road hybrid-electric vehicle, to reduce its environmental impact without compromising performance, safety or consumer acceptability. This paper describes the Purdue team's control development process for the EcoCAR 2 competition.
Technical Paper

Design of a High-Bandwidth, Low-Cost Hydrostatic Absorption Dynamometer with Electronic Load Control

A low-cost hydrostatic absorption dynamometer has been developed for small to medium sized engines. The dynamometer was designed and built by students to support student projects and educational activities. The availability of such a dynamometer permits engine break-in cycles, performance testing, and laboratory instruction in the areas of engines, fuels, sensors, and data acquisition. The dynamometer, capable of loading engines up to 60kW at 155Nm and 3600rpm, incorporates a two-section gear pump and an electronically operated proportional pressure control valve to develop and control the load. A bypass valve permits the use of only one pump section, allowing increased fidelity of load control at lower torque levels. Torque is measured directly on the drive shaft with a strain gage. Torque and speed signals are transmitted by an inductively-powered collar mounted to the dynamometer drive shaft. Pressure transducers at the pump inlet and pump outlet allow secondary load measurement.
Technical Paper

Source Identification Using an Inverse Visible Element Rayleigh Integral Approach

This paper documents an inverse visible element Rayleigh integral (VERI) approach. The VERI is a fast though approximate method for predicting sound radiation that can be used in the place of the boundary element method. This paper extends the method by applying it to the inverse problem where the VERI is used to generate the acoustic transfer matrix relating the velocity on the surface to measurement points. Given measured pressures, the inverse VERI can be used to reconstruct the vibration of a radiating surface. Results from an engine cover and diesel engine indicate that the method can be used to reliably quantify the sound power and also approximate directivity.
Technical Paper

Model-based Development for Event-driven Applications using MATLAB: Audio Playback Case Study

Audio playbacks are mechanisms which read data from a storage medium and produce commands and signals which an audio system turns into music. Playbacks are constantly changed to meet market demands, requiring that the control software be updated quickly and efficiently. This paper reviews a 12 month project using the MATLAB/Simulink/Stateflow environment for model-based development, system simulation, autocode generation, and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) verification for playbacks which read music CDs or MP3 disks. Our team began with a “clean slate” approach to playback architecture, and demonstrated working units running production-ready code. This modular, layered architecture enables rapid development and verification of new playback mechanisms, thereby reducing the time needed to evaluate playback mechanisms and integrate into a complete infotainment system.
Technical Paper

Caterpillar Automatic Code Generation

Automatic code generation from models is actively used at Caterpillar for powertrain and machine control development. This technology was needed to satisfy the industry's demands for both increased software feature content, and its added complexity, and a short turn-around time. A pilot development effort was employed initially to roll out this new technology and shape the deployment strategy. As a result of a series of successful projects involving rapid prototyping and production code generation, Caterpillar will deploy MathWorks modeling and code generation products as their department-wide production development capability. The data collected indicated a reduction of person hours by a factor of 2 to 4 depending on the project and a reduction of calendar time by a factor of greater than 2. This paper discusses the challenges, results, and lessons learned, during this pilot effort from the perspectives of both Caterpillar and The MathWorks.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Metalcasting Process Selection

Today, there are several hundreds of manufacturing processes available to the designer to choose from, and the number is constantly increasing. The ability to choose a manufacturing process for a particular user need set in the early stage of the design process is necessary. In metalcasting alone, there are over forty different processes with different capabilities. A designer can benefit from knowing the manufacturing process alternatives available to him. Inaccurate process selection can lead to financial losses and market share erosion. This paper discusses a methodology for selection of a metalcasting process based on a number of user specified attributes or requirements. A model of user requirements was developed and these requirements were matched with the capabilities of each metalcasting process. The metalcasting process which best meets these needs is suggested.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Metalcasting Design

Design optimization for functionality, and manufacturability was virtually impossible in the past. However, recent standardization of file storing formats resulted in seamless data transfer from one software package to another; thus, allowing integration of all facets of product design optimization. This paper describes a metalcasting design optimization process. It focuses on the design of cast parts according to functional requirements while optimizing shape with respect to structural integrity, while ascertaining that the part can be manufactured (cast) without defects.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Nonlinear Elastomeric Mounts. Part 1: Dynamic Testing and Parameter Identification

A methodology for modeling elastomeric mounts as nonlinear lumped parameter models is discussed. A key feature of this methodology is that it integrates dynamic test results under different conditions into the model. The first step is to model the mount as a linear model that is simple but reproduces accurately results from dynamic tests under small excitations. Frequency Response Functions (FRF) enables systematic calculation of the parameters for the model. Under more realistic excitation, the mount exhibits non-linearity, which is investigated in the next step. For nonlinear structures, a simple and intuitive method is to use time-domain force-displacement (F-x) curves. Experiments to obtain the F-x curves involve controlling the displacement excitation and measuring the induced forces. From the F-x curves, stiffness and damping parameters are obtained with an optimization technique.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Simulation Model for Analyzing the Performance of a Steel-Tracked Feller Buncher

A parametric simulation model of a steel-tracked feller buncher was developed1. This model can be used to predict the lift capacity, side tipping angles, grade-ability, and joint forces during a cutting cycle. The feller buncher is defined parametrically, allowing the user to quickly analyze different machine configurations simply by changing the value of a variable. Several simulations were performed to illustrate the application of the model.
Technical Paper

Physical Metallurgy Applications and Enhanced Machinability of Microalloyed V-Ti-N Forging Steels

Medium-carbon, microalloyed forging steels represent a cost effective replacement of quenched and tempered grades. Their strength properties are derived from precipitation during cooling from the forging temperature. Because of the relatively high carbon content, vanadium is the most suitable addition to achieve precipitation strengthening. The effectiveness of vanadium is enhanced by the presence of nitrogen. For components subjected to impact loading, improvement in toughness is achieved by refining austenitic grains, pinning their boundaries by means of dispersed titanium nitrides. Precipitation strengthened ferrite-pearlite steels exhibit superior machinability compared to that of quenched and tempered alloy steels. As a result, the total machining costs are substantially reduced compared to the costs of machining heat-treated steels. The frequency of tool breakage and tool changes decrease dramatically, virtually eliminating line scrap and unnecessary downtime.
Technical Paper

Cylinder-to-Cylinder Variation of Losses in Intake Regions of IC Engines

Very large scale, 3D, viscous, turbulent flow simulations, involving 840,000 finite volume cells and the complete form of the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, were conducted to study the mechanisms responsible for total pressure losses in the entire intake system (inlet duct, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a straight-six diesel engine. A unique feature of this paper is the inclusion of physical mechanisms responsible for cylinder-to-cylinder variation of flows between different cylinders, namely, the end-cylinder (#1) and the middle cylinder (#3) that is in-line with the inlet duct. Present results are compared with cylinder #2 simulations documented in a recent paper by the Clemson group, Taylor, et al. (1997). A validated comprehensive computational methodology was used to generate grid independent and fully convergent results.