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Technical Paper

Establishing, Implementing and Evaluating a Parts Reusability Program

1986-04-01
860761
This paper discusses: the needs and benefits of a parts reusability program; the elements required for establishing a parts reusability program; how to determine the reusability limits of a part; the implementation of a parts reusability program; and how to evaluate a parts reusability program. This paper is written and intended for market analysts and engineers working in service organizations worldwide.
Technical Paper

Caterpillar's Folded Core Radiator

1986-04-01
860765
THE CATERPILLAR FOLDED CORE RADIATOR IS A NEW RADIATOR FOR VEHICLES AND STATIONARY ENGINE APPLICATIONS. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVES OF THIS DESIGN ARE TO GIVE THE USER AN INCREASED VALUE COOLING SYSTEM BY REDUCING RADIATOR REPAIR COSTS AND IMPROVING AIR-SIDE PLUGGING RESISTANCE. AS WELL AS PROVIDE THE VEHICLE DESIGNER WITH INCREASED APPLICATION DESIGN FLEXIBILITY. THIS IS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED WHILE MAINTAINING PERFORMANCE AND LIFE GOALS ASSOCIATED WITH THE CONVENTIONAL RADIATOR. THE FOLDED CORE IS A MODULAR DESIGN HAVING THE MODULES INSTALLED AT AN ANGLE TO THE FAN AIR STREAM RESULTING IN THE FOLDED APPEARANCE. COMMON MODULE SIZES ARE USED ACROSS THE MANY RADIATOR APPLICATIONS REDUCING INVENTORY REQUIREMENTS AT THE ASSEMBLY PLANT AND PARTS DEPOTS AND INCREASING INDIVIDUAL MODULE PRODUCTION VOLUME. THIS RADIATOR DESIGN IS REVIEWED FROM CONCEPT TO PRODUCTION.
Technical Paper

Electronic/Hydraulic Transmission Control System for Off-Highway Hauling Vehicles

1985-04-01
850783
For some time, Caterpillar Tractor Co. has been marketing a new transmission control system for wheel-tractor scrapers and off-highway trucks. The new system is composed of an electronic microprocessor control box coupled with an individual clutch modulation hydraulic control. This system has resulted in increased vehicle productivity, improved reliability and serviceability, decreased complexity, and increased commonality of parts. This paper describes the concept, design, and test and evaluation process used to develop the new controls before production.
Technical Paper

Spherical Rod End Test Development and Results

1985-04-01
850808
This Paper: 1. Shows that the present spherical rod end manufacturer's rotational tests, which are intended to select the best bearing material, do not necessarily select the best materials for the push/pull linkage requirements of earthmoving machinery. 2. Emphasizes the need to perform push/pull comparative testing as defined in SAE J1367 on spherical rod ends to determine acceptable materials for earthmoving equipment application. This test is in contrast to rotational testing presently being performed by spherical rod end manufacturers.
Technical Paper

Closed Center Hydraulic System For An Articulated Motor Grader

1976-02-01
760429
THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS for the Caterpillar “G” Series Motor Graders were designed to provide for maximum operator comfort, ease of operation, and optimum control of the vehicle and implements. The use of high pressure closed center systems on these machines produces rapid system response and high hydraulic horsepower to the implement cylinders and motors, and operates with minimum size control components. Components were designed to meet specific system requirements for functional performance, reliability of operation, size and placement on the machine. System goals were met through the use of a variable displacement pressure compensated pump, controlled flow four-way implement valves, and a hydrostatic steering system.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of the Caterpillar 7155 Semi-Automatic Heavy-Duty Truck Transmission

1975-02-01
750729
The heavy-duty truck industry has seen the need for a change in the concept of transmission design for many years. Several improvements have been made and others attempted, but greater improvement is needed to match the engine's delivery to the vehicle's demand. Driver performance can be improved and fatigue reduced by lowering the effort and skill required to make smooth, consistent starts and ratio changes. This paper discusses a solution to this need in the design and development of a semi-automatic, pneumatically controlled, constant mesh transmission.
Technical Paper

Some Diesel Exhaust Reactivity Information Derived by Gas Chromatography

1974-02-01
740530
Chromatographic analysis of diesel exhaust indicates a number of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, below C6. Using reactivity index as a criterion, much of the diesel exhaust reactivity can be attributed to ethylene and propylene caused by the thermal decomposition of the fuel. Hydrocarbons in the C4-C7 range, including high relative reactivity olefins, are generally low in volume concentration and therefore contribute little to the overall exhaust reactivity. Hydrocarbons, in terms of parts per million carbon above C7 are low in present diesel engine designs, so individual volume concentrations are generally fractional parts per million. Reactivity per horsepower-hour from diesel engine exhaust is less than that from the one small industrial gasoline engine tested by the heavy-duty truck diesel engine cycle.
Technical Paper

Amplitude Distribution Analyzer for the Measurement of Gearing Load Spectra

1972-02-01
720800
Gearing load spectra data collected under actual working conditions help a designer predict the fatigue life of power train components. Considerable time was required in the past to collect and reduce these data to a form suitable for design use. A vehicle mounted instrumentation system consisting of a strain gaged shaft, a shaft encoder-slip ring assembly, and an amplitude distribution analyzer, was developed which performs load measurements. At the test's conclusion, it provides a spectrum analysis in printed histogram form.
Technical Paper

Some Experiences in the Scaling of the NASA 8-Stage Transonic Axial Flow Compressor

1972-02-01
720711
An eight-stage transonic axial flow compressor was scaled to three-tenths its original size. The scaled compressor was built and tested as a separate component, and as a component of a gas turbine engine. This paper summarizes the work done on this compressor, including the aerodynamic design considerations and overall performance results.
Technical Paper

Power Train-Vehicle Modeling to Simulate Shifting Transients of Off-Highway Vehicles

1972-02-01
720044
Analytic modeling and analog computer simulation techniques are presented for determining power train transient responses excited by clutch-actuated gear shifts. A method for describing the dynamics of a transmission arrangement having several clutches and interconnected planetary gear sets is considered in detail. Simulation model testing is directed toward optimizing system design parameters and evaluating power train component capability and vehicle shift-feel. Data reduction techniques applied to model responses of torque and speed will yield appropriate spectrums representative of simulated work cycle. The spectrum data are used to predict hours of life for gears, bearings, and driveshafts, according to cumulative fatigue damage theory.
Technical Paper

Computer-Aided Spur Gear Design

1969-02-01
690564
This paper demonstrates a way of applying an iterative computing technique to a typical engineering design problem, in such a way as to maximize a mathematical expression of the design criteria. Ways of writing this mathematical expression to express design criteria are explained through several illustrative examples. This technique of computer-aided design should allow the engineer to arrive at more than satisfactory designs in a minimum of engineering time.
Technical Paper

Caterpillar's Inertia Weld Process

1966-02-01
660470
A new friction welding process, Caterpillar Inertia Welding, is described in this paper. The two distinguishing characteristics of this form of welding are a continuously decreasing rotational velocity and a continuously changing torque at the weld interface. This enables the forging of many previously “difficult-to-weld” materials, such as superalloys. Such welds also exhibit excellent fatigue properties. Because this process produces high strength bonds in dissimilar materials, the designer is able to create composite parts using the special properties of each material in response to the needs of the design.
Technical Paper

Surface Fatigue Research with the Geared Roller Test Machine

1963-01-01
630050
Fatigue failure of machine components subjected to high contact pressures is rapidly becoming recognized as a serious design limitation. Confusion has resulted from grouping three distinct types of contact fatigue failure under the term “pitting” A Geared Roller Test Machine is described that reproduced each of the three modes of failure. The stress-life relationships obtained for rollers tested under conditions of rolling plus sliding correlated well with actual gear performance. The sensitivity of the test to changes in material, micorstructure, and processing variables is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Service Load and Stress Determination

1962-01-01
620258
This paper first discusses the loads of major significance to various machines and machine parts, and second, considers available methods of measuring, analyzing, and presenting information on loads and stresses. Various engine and machine components are examined from standpoints of loading methods and which loads are likely to be critical on each component. Interrelations between components and machines are also discussed. Tools and methods available to the load and stress analyst are described, with particular emphasis on choices available in methods, instrumentation, and presentation of data. Reasons for preferences in particular situations are given.
Technical Paper

an evaluation of AFTERCOOLING in Turbocharged Diesel Engine Performance

1959-01-01
590049
AFTERCOOLING, coupled with higher pressure turbocharging can increase vehicle engine output. The author thinks that it is possible to anticipate diesel engines being run with compressors supplying air at pressure ratios higher than 2/1. Density ratio is the most important consideration in increasing pressure ratio, since the engine's output is dependent upon weight rather than volume of air supplied. Because the density of the compressed air is dependent upon its temperature at any pressure level, cooling the air after compression results in density increases. This paper describes various methods of after-cooling which increase engine output and fuel economy.
Technical Paper

RESILIENT FACE SEALS FOR TRACTOR FINAL DRIVES

1958-01-01
580012
TRACTORS operate in a wide range of conditions, from desert to swamp. At all times, the final-drive seals must keep the oil in and the dirt out. In this paper, the authors discuss the latest developments in seal design and the resulting improvements in performance. Efficient performance of a tractor final-drive seal depends upon a number of factors, including: bellows and bellows-boot operation, seal load and area, seal material, wear washer, and gasket structures.
Technical Paper

A Billion Engine Hours On Aluminum Bearings

1956-01-01
560058
HIGH load-carrying ability and fatigue strength, good embeddabiltty and conformability, and resistance to wear, seizure, and corrosion are factors that sold them on aluminum for bearings, the authors report. Bonded steel backing, they say, makes aluminum bearings even better. Retaining aluminum's good properties, it improves some of its bad points and gives such advantages as: Reduced bearing clearances, compared with those used with solid-aluminum bearings. No life limit in operation below 5000 psi fatigue stress value. Less sensitivity to high oil temperatures. Negligible wear (after 29,000 hr in one test). Simpler and less expensive bearing-locating designs. Special excellence for high-load, high-speed applications.
Technical Paper

A New Look at the Scoring Phenomena of Gears

1953-01-01
530220
THIS paper points out that the advantages of using light, nonadditive oils are often sacrificed because of lack of fundamental knowledge about gear-scoring problems. Most formulas that have been developed to determine the scoring resistance have been totally empirical and have proved inadequate for stringent design requirements. The author discusses the excellent correlation that exists between scoring test results and a hypothesis on the failure of straight mineral oils. This correlation also encompasses the test results of ball and roller scoring test machines, showing the probable universal application of the hypothesis. The method of approach to the scoring problem of gears as discussed in this paper is a fundamental one, which combines the factors affecting the conversion of frictional energy into surface temperature with gear tooth geometry, stiffness, and surface finish, and points a way to design gears of higher scoring resistance.
Technical Paper

Supercharged Diesel Performance versus Intake and Exhaust Conditions

1953-01-01
530209
THIS paper presents results which will answer many of the problems facing an engine manufacturer in the selection of the most suitable types and sizes of superchargers to use with a line of engines. Although performance curves of production model diesels are available, decisions are still needed in choosing peak supercharging pressures, drive means, and size and effectiveness of intercoolers, if any. The author describes the use of a typical model to determine response to variation in intake and exhaust conditions, resulting in data which will assist in evaluating engine potentials with any system of supercharging. Thus, supercharger selection for a particular line of engines is aided by knowledge of engine characteristics as a second-stage compressor.
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