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Journal Article

Well-To-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model incorporated fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Based on PSAT simulations of the blended charge depleting (CD) operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle’s total energy use ranging from 6% for PHEV 10 to 24% for PHEV 40 based on CD vehicle mile traveled (VMT) shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. Besides fuel economy of PHEVs and type of on-board fuel, the type of electricity generation mix impacted the WTW results of PHEVs, especially GHG emissions.
Technical Paper

Well-to-Wheels Results of Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Air Pollutant Emissions of Selected Vehicle/Fuel Systems

A fuel-cycle model-called the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model-has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate well-to-wheels (WTW) energy and emission impacts of motor vehicle technologies fueled with various transportation fuels. The new GREET version has up-to-date information regarding energy use and emissions for fuel production activities and vehicle operations. In this study, a complete WTW evaluation targeting energy use, greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O), and typical criteria air pollutants (VOC, NOX, and PM10) includes the following fuel options-gasoline, diesel, and hydrogen; and the following vehicle technologies-spark-ignition engines with or without hybrid configurations, compression-ignition engines with hybrid configurations, and hydrogen fuel cells with hybrid configurations.