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Technical Paper

Location of the First Auto-Ignition Sites for Two HCCI Systems in a Direct Injection Engine

To elucidate the processes controlling the auto-ignition timing and overall combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, the distribution of the auto-ignition sites, in both space and time, was studied. The auto-ignition locations were investigated using optical diagnosis of HCCI combustion, based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of formaldehyde in an optical engine with fully variable valve actuation. This engine was operated in two different modes of HCCI. In the first, auto-ignition temperatures were reached by heating the inlet air, while in the second, residual mass from the previous combustion cycle was trapped using a negative valve overlap. The fuel was introduced directly into the combustion chamber in both approaches. To complement these experiments, 3-D numerical modeling of the gas exchange and compression stroke events was done for both HCCI-generating approaches.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Parameters on Auto-Ignition and Soot Formation in Diesel Sprays

A validation study of the numerical model of n-heptane spray combustion based on experimental constant-volume data [1] was done, by comparing auto-ignition delays for different pre - turbulence levels and initial temperatures, flame contours, and soot distributions under Diesel-like conditions. The basic novelty of the methodology developed in [2] - [3] is the implementation of the partially stirred reactor (PaSR) model accounting for detailed chemistry / turbulence interactions. It is based on the assumption that the chemical processes proceed in two successive steps: micro mixing, simulated on a sub - grid scale, is followed by the reaction act. When the all Re number RNG k-ε or LES models are employed, the micro mixing time can be consistently defined giving the combustion model a “well-closed” form incorporated into the KIVA-3V code.
Technical Paper

Sources of Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Direct Injection Stratified Charge Spark Ignition Engine

The purpose of this paper is to assess the influence of fuel properties on cycle-resolved exhaust hydrocarbons and investigate the sources of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions in a direct injection stratified charge (DISC) SI engine. The tested engine is a single cylinder version of a commercial DISC engine that uses a wall guided combustion system. The HC emissions were analyzed using both a fast flame ionization detector (Fast FID) and conventional emission measurement equipment. Three fuels were compared in the study: iso-Pentane, iso-Octane and a gasoline of Japanese specification. The measurements were conducted at part-load, where the combustion is in stratified mode. The start of injection (SOI) was altered in relation to the series calibration to vary the mixture preparation time, the time from SOI to ignition. The ignition timing was set at maximum brake torque (MBT) for each test.