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Technical Paper

48V Mild-Hybrid Architecture Types, Fuels and Power Levels Needed to Achieve 75g CO2/km

48V mild hybrid powertrains are promising technologies for cost-effective compliance with future CO2 emissions standards. Current 48V powertrains with integrated belt starter generators (P0) with downsized engines achieve CO2 emissions of 95 g/km in the NEDC. However, to reach 75 g/km, it may be necessary to combine new 48V powertrain architectures with alternative fuels. Therefore, this paper compares CO2 emissions from different 48V powertrain architectures (P0, P1, P2, P3) with different electric power levels under various driving cycles (NEDC, WLTC, and RTS95). A numerical model of a compact class passenger car with a 48V powertrain was created and experimental fuel consumption maps for engines running on different fuels (gasoline, Diesel, E85, CNG) were used to simulate its CO2 emissions. The simulation results were analysed to determine why specific powertrain combinations were more efficient under certain driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Large-Eddy Simulation on the Effects of Fuel Injection Pressure on the Gasoline Spray Characteristics

Increasing the injection pressure in gasoline direct injection engines has a substantial potential to reduce emissions while maintaining a high efficiency in spark ignition engines. Present gasoline injectors are operating in the range of 20 MPa to 25 MPa. Now there is an interest in higher fuel injection pressures, for instance, around 40 MPa, 60 MPa and even higher pressures, because of its potential for further emission reduction and fuel efficiency improvements. In order to fully utilize the high-pressure fuel injection technology, a fundamental understanding of gasoline spray characteristics is vital to gain insight into spray behavior under such high injection pressures. The understanding achieved may also be beneficial to improve further model development and facilitate the integration of such advanced injection systems into future gasoline engines.
Technical Paper

Supervisory Controller for a Light Duty Diesel Engine with an LNT-SCR After-Treatment System

Look ahead information can be used to improve the powertrain’s fuel consumption while efficiently controlling exhaust emissions. A passenger car propelled by a Euro 6d capable diesel engine is studied. In the conventional approach, the diesel powertrain subsystem control is rule based. It uses no information of future load requests but is operated with the objective of low engine out exhaust emission species until the Exhaust After-Treatment System (EATS) light off has occurred, even if fuel economy is compromised greatly. Upon EATS light off, the engine is operated more fuel efficiently since the EATS system is able to treat emissions effectively. This paper presents a supervisory control structure with the intended purpose to operate the complete powertrain using a minimum of fuel while improving the robustness of exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Toward an Effective Virtual Powertrain Calibration System

Due to stricter emission regulations and more environmental awareness, the powertrain systems are moving toward higher fuel efficiency and lower emissions. In response to these pressing needs, new technologies have been designed and implemented by manufacturers. As a result of increasing complexity of the powertrain systems, their control and optimization become more and more challenging. Virtual powertrain calibration, also known as model-based calibration, has been introduced to transfer a part of test bench testing into a virtual environment, and hence considerably reduce time and cost of product development process while increasing the product quality. Nevertheless, virtual calibration has not yet reached its full potential in industrial applications. Volvo Penta has recently developed a virtual test cell named VIRTEC, which is used in an ongoing pilot project to meet the Stage V emission standards.
Technical Paper

Impact of Conventional and Electrified Powertrains on Fuel Economy in Various Driving Cycles

Many technological developments in automobile powertrains have been implemented in order to increase efficiency and comply with emission regulations. Although most of these technologies show promising results in official fuel economy tests, their benefits in real driving conditions and real driving emissions can vary significantly, since driving profiles of many drivers are different than the official driving cycles. Therefore, it is important to assess these technologies under different driving conditions and this paper aims to offer an overall perspective, with a numerical study in simulations. The simulations are carried out on a compact passenger car model with eight powertrain configurations including: a naturally aspirated spark ignition engine, a start-stop system, a downsized engine with a turbocharger, a Miller cycle engine, cylinder deactivation, turbocharged downsized Miller engine, a parallel hybrid electric vehicle powertrain and an electric vehicle powertrain.
Journal Article

Reduction of Soot Formation in an Optical Single-Cylinder Gasoline Direct-Injected Engine Operated in Stratified Mode Using 350 Bar Fuel Injection Pressure, Dual-Coil and High-Frequency Ignition Systems

The current trend toward more fuel efficient vehicles with lower emission levels has prompted development of new combustion techniques for use in gasoline engines. Stratified combustion has been shown to be a promising approach for increasing the fuel efficiency. However, this technique is hampered by drawbacks such as increased particulate and standard emissions. This study attempts to address the issues of increased emission levels by investigating the influence of high frequency ionizing ignition systems, 350 bar fuel injection pressure and various tumble levels on particulate emissions and combustion characteristics in an optical SGDI engine operated in stratified mode on isooctane. Tests were performed at one engine load of 2.63 bar BMEP and speed of 1200 rpm. Combustion was recorded with two high speed color cameras from bottom and side views using optical filters for OH and soot luminescence.
Technical Paper

Interaction of Downforce Generating Devices and Cooling Air Flow - A Numerical and Experimental Study on Open Wheeled Race Cars

This study reflects on two areas of vehicle aerodynamics, optimising cooling performance and features that will improve the handling of the car. Both areas will have a significant impact on the overall performance of the car and at the same time these areas are linked to each other. The considered vehicle in this study was the Chalmers Formula Student 2011 Formula SAE car and the flow field was analysed using both numerical simulations as well as performing wind tunnel experiments on a 1:3-scale model of the car. The focus on increasing downforce without increasing the aerodynamic drag is particularly good in Formula SAE since fuel economy is an event at the competition. Therefore, the intention of this work is to present a study on how undertrays with different design such as added foot plates, diffuser and strakes can improve the downforce and reduce the drag.
Technical Paper

PHEV Energy Management: A Comparison of Two Levels of Trip Information

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have rechargeable energy storage which can be used to run the vehicle on shorter range on electricity from the grid. In the absence of a priori information about the trip, a straightforward strategy is to first deplete the battery down to a minimum level and then keep the state of charge (SoC) around this level. However, largely due to the battery losses, the overall fuel economy can be improved if the battery is discharged gradually. This requires some a priori knowledge about the trip. This paper investigates the tradeoff between improved fuel economy and the need for a priori information. This investigation is done using a variant of telemetry equivalent consumption minimization strategy (T-ECMS) which is modified to be used for a PHEV. To implement this strategy, several parameters need to be tuned based on an assumption of the future trip.
Technical Paper

Reducing Pressure Fluctuations at High Loads by Means of Charge Stratification in HCCI Combustion with Negative Valve Overlap

Future demands for improvements in the fuel economy of gasoline passenger car engines will require the development and implementation of advanced combustion strategies, to replace, or combine with the conventional spark ignition strategy. One possible strategy is homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) achieved using negative valve overlap (NVO). However, several issues need to be addressed before this combustion strategy can be fully implemented in a production vehicle, one being to increase the upper load limit. One constraint at high loads is the combustion becoming too rapid, leading to excessive pressure-rise rates and large pressure fluctuations (ringing), causing noise. In this work, efforts were made to reduce these pressure fluctuations by using a late injection during the later part of the compression. A more appropriate acronym than HCCI for such combustion is SCCI (Stratified Charge Compression Ignition).
Technical Paper

Effects of Multiple Injections on Engine-Out Emission Levels Including Particulate Mass from an HSDI Diesel Engine

The effects of multiple injections on engine-out emissions from a high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine were investigated in a series of experiments using a single cylinder research engine. Injection sequences in which the main injection was split into two, three and four pulses were tested and the resulting emissions (NOx, CO HC and particulate matter), torque and cylinder pressures were compared to those obtained with single injections. Together with the number of injections, the effects of varying the dwell time were also investigated. It was found that dividing the main injection into two parts lowered the engine-out particulate and CO emissions and increased fuel efficiency. However, it also resulted in increased NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Gasoline HCCI Modeling: An Engine Cycle Simulation Code with a Multi-Zone Combustion Model

For the application to Gasoline Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) modeling, a multi-zone model was developed. For this purpose, the detailed-chemistry code SENKIN from the CHEMKIN library was modified. In a previous paper, the authors explained how piston motion and a heat transfer model were implemented in the SENKIN code to make it applicable to engine modeling. The single-zone model developed was successfully implemented in the engine cycle simulation code AVL BOOST™. A multi-zone model, including a crevice volume, a quench layer and multiple core zones, is introduced here. A temperature distribution specified over these zones gives this model a wider range of application than the single-zone model, since fuel efficiency, emissions and heat release can now be predicted more accurately. The SENKIN-BOOST multi-zone model predictions are compared with experimental data.