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Technical Paper

Stiffness Simulation Techniques and Test Correlations in Automotive Interior Cockpit Systems (IP, Door Trim and Floor Console Assembly)

2014-04-01
2014-01-1025
An automotive cockpit module is a complex assembly, which consists of components and sub-systems. The critical systems in the cockpit module are the instrument panel (IP), the floor console, and door trim assemblies, which consist of many plastic trims. Stiffness is one of the most important parameters for the plastic trims' design, and it should be optimum to meet all the three functional requirements of safety, vibration and durability. This paper presents how the CAE application and various other techniques are used efficiently to predict the stiffness, and the strength of automotive cockpit systems, which will reduce the product development cycle time and cost. The implicit solver is used for the most of the stiffness analysis, and the explicit techniques are used in highly non-linear situations. This paper also shows the correlations of the CAE results and the physical test results, which will give more confidence in product design and reduce the cost of prototype testing.
Technical Paper

Analyzing Vibrations in an IC Engine Valve Train

1998-02-23
980570
This study analyzes the vibration characteristics of the valve train of a 2.0L SOHC Chrysler Corp. Neon engine over a range of operating speeds to investigate and demonstrate the advantages and limitations of various dynamic measurements such as displacement, velocity, and acceleration in this application. The valve train was tested in a motoring fixture at speeds of 500 to 3500 camshaft rpm. The advantages of analyzing both time and frequency domain measurements are described. Both frequency and order analysis were done on the data. The theoretical order spectra of cam displacement and acceleration were computed and compared to the experimental data. Deconvolution was used to uncover characteristic frequencies of vibration in the system. The theoretical cam acceleration spectrum was deconvolved from measured acceleration spectra to reveal the frequency response function of the follower system.
Technical Paper

Panel Contribution Study: Results, Correlation and Optimal Bead Pattern for Powertrain Noise Reduction

1997-05-20
971953
To understand how the passenger compartment cavity interacts with the surrounding panels (roof, windshield, dash panel, etc) a numerical panel contribution analysis was performed using FEA and BEA techniques. An experimental panel contribution analysis was conducted by Reiter Automotive Systems. Test results showed good correlation with the simulation results. After gaining some insight into panel contributions for power train noise, an attempt was made to introduce beads in panels to reduce vibration levels. A fully trimmed body structural-acoustic FEA model was used in this analysis. A network of massless beam elements was created in the model. This full structural-acoustic FEA model was then used to determine the optimal location for the beads, using the added beams as optimization variables.
Technical Paper

Static and Dynamic Dent Resistance Performance of Automotive Steel Body Panels

1997-02-24
970158
In recent years, strict weight reduction targets have pushed auto manufacturers to use lighter gauge sheet steels in all areas of the vehicle including exterior body panels. As sheet metal thicknesses are reduced, dentability of body panels becomes of increasing concern. Thus, the goal becomes one of reducing sheet metal thickness while maintaining acceptable dent resistance. Most prior work in this area has focused on quasi-static loading conditions. In this study, both quasi-static and dynamic dent tests are evaluated. Fully assembled doors made from mild, medium strength bake hardenable and non-bake hardenable steels are examined. The quasi-static dent test is run at a test speed of 0.1 m/minute while the dynamic dent test is run at a test speed of 26.8 m/minute. Dynamic dent testing is of interest because it more closely approximates real life denting conditions such as in-plant handling and transit damage, and parking lot damage from car door and shopping cart impact.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Embrittlement in Automotive Fastener Applications

1996-02-01
960312
Fastener failure due to hydrogen embrittlement is of significant concern in the automotive industry. These types of failures occur unexpectedly. They may be very costly to the automotive company and fastener supplier, not only monetarily, but also in terms of customer satisfaction and safety. This paper is an overview of a program which one automotive company initiated to minimize hydrogen embrittlement in fasteners. The objectives of the program were two-fold. One was to obtain a better understanding of the hydrogen embrittlement phenomena as it relates to automotive fastener materials and processes. The second and most important objective, was to eliminate hydrogen embrittlement failures in vehicles. Early program efforts concentrated on a review of fastener applications and corrosion protection systems to optimize coated fasteners for hydrogen embrittlement resistance.
Technical Paper

Achieving Dent Resistance Improvements and Weight Reduction Through Stamping Process Optimization and Steel Substitution

1996-02-01
960025
Resistance to dents and dings, caused by plant handling and in-service use, is generally recognized as an important performance requirement for automotive outer body panels. This paper examines the dent resistance improvements that can be achieved by maximizing surface stretch, through adjustments to the press settings, and substitution of a higher strength steel grade. Initially, the stamping process was optimized using the steel supplied for production: a Ti/Nb-stabilized, ultra low carbon (ULC) grade. The stamping process was subsequently optimized with a Nb-stabilized, rephosphorized ULC steel, at various thicknesses. The formed panels were evaluated for percent surface stretch, percent thinning, in-panel yield strength after forming, and dent performance. The results showed that dent resistance can be significantly improved, even at a reduced steel thickness, thus demonstrating a potential for weight savings.
Technical Paper

Assessing Design Concepts for NVH Using HYFEX (Hybrid Finite Element/Experimental) Modeling

1995-05-01
951249
This paper outlines several methodologies which use finite element and experimental models to predict vehicle NVH responses. Trimmed body experimental modal subsystem models are incorporated into the finite element system model to evaluate engine mounting systems for low frequency vibration problems. Higher frequency noise issues related to road input are evaluated using experimentally derived acoustic transfer functions combined with finite element subsystem model responses. Specific examples of system models built to simulate idle shake and road noise are given. Applications to engine mounting, suspension design, and body structure criteria are discussed.
Technical Paper

Refinement of the Interior Sound Quality of Chrysler's Dodge and Plymouth

1995-05-01
951309
The low noise and linear sound level characteristics of passenger vehicles are receiving increased scrutiny from automotive journalists. A linear noise level rise with increasing engine rpm is the first basic aspect of insuring an acceptable vehicle interior engine noise sound quality. In a typical case of structural response to engine vibration input, interior noise begins to rise with rpm, remains constant or even drops as the engine continues to accelerate, and then exhibits a noise period corresponding to the structure's natural frequency. Frequently this nonlinearity is bothersome to the customer. During the development process, Chrysler's Dodge and Plymouth Neon exhibited just such a nonlinear rise in noise level, heard within the passenger compartment, when the vehicle was accelerated through 4200 rpm.
Technical Paper

Road Noise Modelling Using Statistical Energy Analysis Method

1995-05-01
951327
A mathematical model was developed to evaluate design options for control of road noise transmission into the interior of a passenger car. Both air-borne and structure-borne road noise over the frequency range of 200-5000 Hz was able to be considered using the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) method. Acoustic and vibration measurements conducted on a laboratory rolling road were used to represent the tire noise “source” functions. The SEA model was correlated to in car sound pressure level measurements to within 2-4 db accuracy, and showed that airborne noise dominated structure-borne noise sources above 400 Hz. The effectiveness of different noise control treatments was simulated and in some cases evaluated with tests.
Technical Paper

Architecture and Operation of the HIP7010 J1850 Byte-Level Interface Circuit

1995-02-01
950035
As a cost effective solution to making microcontroller based systems “J1850[1] aware”, a peripheral device (the HIP7010) was developed to extend the capabilities of standard microcontrollers. From the perspective of the Host, the peripheral device handles J1850 messages as a series of bytes (similar in concept to a universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter [UART]). The architecture of the HIP7010 is discussed. The design of the J1850 interface, state machine, status/control blocks, cyclical redundancy check (CRC) hardware, host interface, and fail-safe features are detailed. Illustrations are provided of: Host/HIP7010 interfacing; message transmission and reception; error handling; and In-Frame Response (IFR) generation.
Technical Paper

Carbon and Sulfur Effects on Performance of Microalloyed Spindle Forgings

1993-03-01
930966
Five heats of vanadium-microalloyed steel with carbon contents from 0.29% to 0.40% and sulfur contents from 0.031% to 0.110% were forged into automotive spindles and air cooled. Three of the steels were continuously cast whereas the other two were ingot cast. The forged spindles were subjected to microstructural analysis, mechanical property testing, full component testing and machinability testing. The microstructures of the five steels consisted of pearlite and ferrite which nucleated on prior austenite grain boundaries and predominantly on intragranularly dispersed sulfide inclusions of the resulfurized grades. Ultimate tensile strengths and room temperature Charpy V-notch impact toughness values were relatively insensitive to processing and compositional variations. The room temperature tensile and room-temperature impact properties ranged from 820 MPa to 1000 MPa (120 to 145 ksi) and from 13 Joules to 19 Joules (10 to 14 ft-lbs), respectively, for the various steels.
Technical Paper

42LE Electronic Four-Speed Automatic Transaxle

1993-03-01
930671
A new electronically controlled transaxle has been put into production for Chrysler's family of LH cars. Among the attributes of this new transaxle are its ability to handle engines of high torque and high power coupled with high-speed shifts. Engine torque management is used in specific operating regimes. A feature of the transaxle is electronic modulation of the converter clutch. A number of logic features have been combined with hardware to provide good performance and shift quality over a wide operating range. An output transfer chain and a hypoid gear set are used to provide torque to the front wheels in a longitudinal power train orientation. Obtaining acceptable endurance life of the hypoid gears within an aluminum housing presented a significant challenge. New approaches were required to provide a chain-sprocket system with acceptable noise characteristics.
Technical Paper

RTM Body Panels for Viper Sports Car

1993-03-01
930468
Resin transfer molding (RTM) is the process of choice for the Body Panels of the Viper Sports car. The objective of this paper is to outline the reasons for the choice of RTM, and discuss development of technology for Class A surfaces and the paint system. Accomplishments to date and finally the work yet to be completed will also be defined. Conclusions from the work to date indicate that the RTM process enables a reduction in vehicle development time through faster prototypes and tool build times and that high quality, Class A surfaces can be successfully achieved even with epoxy tools. Additional work is ongoing to reduce cycle times and finishing costs, and to improve the in-process dimensional stability.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Aluminum, Sheet Molding Compound and Steel for Hoods

1992-02-01
920242
A unique opportunity arose to make a direct comparison of aluminum, sheet molding compound (SMC) and steel using a common hood design. In considering all possible material combinations of inner and outer panels, it was discovered that some of the combinations were incompatible due to material properties. Only the compatible material combinations were considered. Three different joining techniques - welding, bonding and bonded hem flanging - were evaluated. The cost, weight and structural performance of the chosen hood material combinations were established. Areas of further development were identified, including design optimization for specific material combinations.
Technical Paper

Improvements in the Dent Resistance of Steel Body Panels

1992-02-01
920243
A computer-controlled body panel testing machine has been used to quantify stiffness and dent resistance of body panels at Chrysler. The influence of yield strength and local reinforcement on the mechanical behavior of automotive door panels has been investigated. Medium strength steels in the range of 210 -240 MPa yield strength have produced significant improvements in dent resistance over a 160 MPa yield strength steel. Considerable improvements in dent resistance can also be attributed to the use of local, adhesively attached, glass fiber reinforcement patches. The effects of boundary conditions and panel shape on stiffness and dent resistance are illustrated in this application.
Technical Paper

Exterior Body Panels - Present Manufacturing Implementation and Future Directions and Needs

1992-02-01
920372
Advances in computerized solid modeling techniques allow the realistic representation of exterior body panels as solid models, at the concept stage of part design. A flow chart of the process is presented on the use of solid models to create exterior body panels. The flow chart allows a study of the process and is extended to the next generation of capabilities.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Automotive Front Seat Structure Constructed of Polymer Composite

1992-02-01
920335
Seats play an important role in determining customer satisfaction and safety. They also represent three to five percent of the overall vehicle cost and weight. Therefore, automotive manufacturers are continuously seeking ways to improve the areas of comfort, safety, reliability, cost and weight within the seat system. The purpose of this paper is to review the development of an automotive front seat constructed of injection molded nylon frames and metal mechanisms. This development program was initiated for the purpose of reducing vehicle weight while increasing the reliability and safety of the front seats. This paper will review the material and process selection decision, a design overview, the performance criteria and the results of tests performed on the injection molded front seats.
Technical Paper

Running Loss Test Procedure Development

1992-02-01
920322
A running loss test procedure has been developed which integrates a point-source collection method to measure fuel evaporative running loss from vehicles during their operation on the chassis dynamometer. The point-source method is part of a complete running loss test procedure which employs the combination of site-specific collection devices on the vehicle, and a sampling pump with sampling lines. Fugitive fuel vapor is drawn into these collectors which have been matched to characteristics of the vehicle and the test cell. The composite vapor sample is routed to a collection bag through an adaptation of the ordinary constant volume dilution system typically used for vehicle exhaust gas sampling. Analysis of the contents of such bags provides an accurate measure of the mass and species of running loss collected during each of three LA-4* driving cycles. Other running loss sampling methods were considered by the Auto-Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP or Program).
Technical Paper

Design and Selection Factors for Automatic Transaxle Tapered Roller Bearings

1992-02-01
920609
Tapered roller bearings have proven successful in a number of high-volume automatic transaxle designs. Typically, tapered roller bearings are required to carry high loads generated by helical and hypoid gears. To meet the demands of a successful design, a number of factors must be considered in the selection and application of tapered roller bearings. This paper presents a discussion of these factors as well as results from Chrysler's transaxle testing. Selection of tapered roller bearings is based on the transmission duty cycle developed using load and speed histograms, gear data, size constraints, and life requirements. A bearing life analysis considering the total transaxle system is conducted using a sophisticated computer program. Various system effects are analyzed including the load/speed cycle, housing and shaft rigidity, lubrication, bearing setting, thermal effects, and bearing internal design.
Technical Paper

High Performance Forged Steel Crankshafts - Cost Reduction Opportunities

1992-02-01
920784
Higher horsepower per liter engines have put more demand on the crankshaft, often requiring the use of forged steel. This paper examines cost reduction opportunities to offset the penalties associated with forged steel, with raw material and machinability being the primary factors evaluated. A cost model for crankshaft processing is utilized in this paper as a design tool to select the lowest cost material grade. This model is supported by fatigue and machinability data for various steel grades. Materials considered are medium carbon, low alloy, and microalloy steels; the effects of sulfur as a machining enhancer is also studied.
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