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Technical Paper

Stiffness Simulation Techniques and Test Correlations in Automotive Interior Cockpit Systems (IP, Door Trim and Floor Console Assembly)

An automotive cockpit module is a complex assembly, which consists of components and sub-systems. The critical systems in the cockpit module are the instrument panel (IP), the floor console, and door trim assemblies, which consist of many plastic trims. Stiffness is one of the most important parameters for the plastic trims' design, and it should be optimum to meet all the three functional requirements of safety, vibration and durability. This paper presents how the CAE application and various other techniques are used efficiently to predict the stiffness, and the strength of automotive cockpit systems, which will reduce the product development cycle time and cost. The implicit solver is used for the most of the stiffness analysis, and the explicit techniques are used in highly non-linear situations. This paper also shows the correlations of the CAE results and the physical test results, which will give more confidence in product design and reduce the cost of prototype testing.
Journal Article

Transient Thermal Modeling of Power Train Components

This paper discusses simplified lumped parameter thermal modeling of power train components. In particular, it discusses the tradeoff between model complexity and the ability to correlate the predicted temperatures and flow rates with measured data. The benefits and problems associated with using a three lumped mass model are explained and the value of this simpler model is promoted. The process for correlation and optimization using modern software tools is explained. Examples of models for engines and transmissions are illustrated along with their predictive abilities over typical driving cycles.
Technical Paper

The Effect of the Internet on Electric-Drive Vehicle Choices

The rapid growth of information technology has the potential to affect many of the reasons why people drive. The Internet is arguably the most significant recent milestone in the growth of information technology. This paper examines the ways Internet communication might affect the travel experience by a) eliminating traditional reasons for personal travel, b) providing new reasons, c) changing the balance between personal and freight travel, and d) changing trip length distribution. Changes of the types listed could affect the product demand "mix" for electric, hybrid-electric and fuel cell vehicles being developed.
Technical Paper

The Car as a Peripheral, Adapting a Portable Computer to a Vehicle Intranet

This paper discusses the feasibility and issues associated with integrating a consumer off-the shelf product into a vehicle. For this evaluation, we selected a handheld personal computer (HPC), cellular telephone and modem to integrate with the vehicle audio, climate and system controls. Connectivity between the HPC and the vehicle is established by the use of the standard infrared serial data link that comes with the HPC. Connectivity outside the vehicle uses a cellular telephone for voice and a cellular digital packet data (CDPD) modem for data. This system is built into the Dodge ESX-2 hybrid powered concept vehicle for demonstration.
Technical Paper

Analyzing Vibrations in an IC Engine Valve Train

This study analyzes the vibration characteristics of the valve train of a 2.0L SOHC Chrysler Corp. Neon engine over a range of operating speeds to investigate and demonstrate the advantages and limitations of various dynamic measurements such as displacement, velocity, and acceleration in this application. The valve train was tested in a motoring fixture at speeds of 500 to 3500 camshaft rpm. The advantages of analyzing both time and frequency domain measurements are described. Both frequency and order analysis were done on the data. The theoretical order spectra of cam displacement and acceleration were computed and compared to the experimental data. Deconvolution was used to uncover characteristic frequencies of vibration in the system. The theoretical cam acceleration spectrum was deconvolved from measured acceleration spectra to reveal the frequency response function of the follower system.
Technical Paper

Panel Contribution Study: Results, Correlation and Optimal Bead Pattern for Powertrain Noise Reduction

To understand how the passenger compartment cavity interacts with the surrounding panels (roof, windshield, dash panel, etc) a numerical panel contribution analysis was performed using FEA and BEA techniques. An experimental panel contribution analysis was conducted by Reiter Automotive Systems. Test results showed good correlation with the simulation results. After gaining some insight into panel contributions for power train noise, an attempt was made to introduce beads in panels to reduce vibration levels. A fully trimmed body structural-acoustic FEA model was used in this analysis. A network of massless beam elements was created in the model. This full structural-acoustic FEA model was then used to determine the optimal location for the beads, using the added beams as optimization variables.
Technical Paper

Automated Test Request and Data Acquisition System for Vehicle Emission Testing

Due to new regulations, emissions development and compliance testing have become more complex. The amount of data acquired, the number of test types, and the variety of test conditions have increased greatly. Due to this increase, managing test information from request to analysis of results has become a critical factor. Also, automated test result presentation and test storage increases the value and quality of each test. This paper describes a computer system developed to cope with the increasing complexity of vehicle emission testing.
Technical Paper

Determination of Coastdown Mechanical Loss Ambient Correction Factors for use with J2263 Road Tests

Testing for vehicle emissions and fuel economy certification occurs primarily on chassis dynamometers in a laboratory setting and therefore the actual road conditions, such as forces due to tire rolling resistance and internal friction, must be simulated. Test track coastdown procedures measure vehicle road load forces and produce an equation which relates these forces to velocity. The recent inclusion of onboard anemometry has allowed the coastdown procedure to account for varying wind effects; however, the new anemometer based mechanical loss coefficients do not take into account ambient weather conditions. The two purposes of this study are (1) to determine the new tire rolling resistance temperature correction coefficient that should be used when test ambient temperature is different from the standard reference value of 68°F, and (2) to investigate the effects of auxiliary measurements, such as other ambient conditions and vehicle settings, on this correction coefficient.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Energy Management Materials for Head Impact Protection

Energy management materials are widely used in automotive interiors in instrument panel, knee bolster, and door absorber applications to reduce the risk of injury to an occupant during a crash. Automobile manufacturers must meet standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that identify maximum levels of injury to an occupant. The recent NHTSA upgrade to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 201 test procedure(1) for upper interior head impact protection has prompted energy management materials' use in several new areas of affected vehicles. While vehicle evaluations continue, results to date show that energy management foams can be effective in reducing the head injury criterion [HIC(d)] to acceptable government and OEM levels.
Technical Paper

Traction Batteries - Their Effects on Electric Vehicle Performance

A few years ago, electric vehicles (EVs) were considered to be objects of the distant future … technology that was still in its infancy, not yet ready and for those outside the “high pollution” areas probably not even worth the expenditure. But the present day scenario has changed dramatically. In the United States of America, several states are following California's lead and the need for the operating fleets to commit to purchase of Zero Emission vehicles (ZEVs) is becoming a requirement. In order to make the technology available to the utilities … as well as the public, state of the art, affordable batteries are essential for making EVs a reality and an effective means of transportation.
Technical Paper

Impact Response of Foam: The Effect of the State of Stress

The Finite Element predictions of the physical response of foams during impact by a rigid body (such as, the Hybrid III head form) is determined by material law equations generally approximated based on the theory of elastoplasticity. However, the structural aspect of foam, its discontinuous nature, makes it difficult to apply the laws of continuum mechanics and construct constitutive equations for foam-like material. One part of the problem relates to the state of stress. In materials such as steel, the state of hydrostatic stress does not affect the stress strain behavior under uniaxial compression or tension in plastic regime. In other words, when steel is subject to hydrostatic pressures the stress strain characteristic can be predicted from a uniaxial test. However, if the stresses acting on a section of foam are triaxial, the response of a head-form may be different than predicted from uniaxial test data.
Technical Paper

Achieving Dent Resistance Improvements and Weight Reduction Through Stamping Process Optimization and Steel Substitution

Resistance to dents and dings, caused by plant handling and in-service use, is generally recognized as an important performance requirement for automotive outer body panels. This paper examines the dent resistance improvements that can be achieved by maximizing surface stretch, through adjustments to the press settings, and substitution of a higher strength steel grade. Initially, the stamping process was optimized using the steel supplied for production: a Ti/Nb-stabilized, ultra low carbon (ULC) grade. The stamping process was subsequently optimized with a Nb-stabilized, rephosphorized ULC steel, at various thicknesses. The formed panels were evaluated for percent surface stretch, percent thinning, in-panel yield strength after forming, and dent performance. The results showed that dent resistance can be significantly improved, even at a reduced steel thickness, thus demonstrating a potential for weight savings.
Technical Paper

OPNET J1850 Network Simulator

MIL 3's OPNET simulator was used to model Chrysler's J1850 bus. Modeled were both J1850 bus characteristics and those portions of control modules (e.g., the engine controller) which communicate on the bus. Current Chrysler control module algorithms and proposed Chrysler J1850 message formats were used to design the control module models. The control module models include all messages which are transmitted at fixed intervals over the J1850 bus. The effects of function-based messages (e.g., messages to be transmitted on a particular sensor or push-button reading) on system load were investigated by transmitting an additional message with a fixed, relatively high priority at 50 millisecond intervals.
Technical Paper

Energy-Absorbing Polyurethane Foam to Improve Vehicle Crashworthiness

Federal legislation mandates that automotive OEMS provide occupant protection in collisions involving front and side impacts This legislation, which is to be phased-in over several years, covers not only passenger cars but also light-duty trucks and multipurpose passenger vehicles (MPVs) having a gross vehicle weigh rating (GVWR) of 8,500 lb (3,850 kg) or less. During a frontal impact, occupants within the vehicle undergo rapid changes in velocity. This is primarily due to rapid vehicle deceleration caused by the rigid nature of the vehicle's metal frame components and body assembly. Many of today's vehicles incorporate deformable, energy-absorbing (EA) structures within the vehicle structure to manage the collision energy and slow the deceleration which in turn can lower the occupant velocity relative to the vehicle. Occupant velocities can be higher in light-duty trucks and MPVs having a full-frame structure resulting in increased demands on the supplemental restraint system (SRS).
Technical Paper

Reducing Cold-Start Emissions by Catalytic Converter Thermal Management

Vacuum insulation and phase-change thermal storage have been used to enhance the heat retention of a prototype catalytic converter. Storing heat in the converter between trips allows exhaust gases to be converted more quickly, significantly reducing cold-start emissions. Using a small metal hydride, the thermal conductance of the vacuum insulation can be varied continuously between 0.49 and 27 W/m2K (R-12 to R-0.2 insulation) to prevent overheating of the catalyst. A prototype was installed in a Dodge Neon with a 2.0-liter engine. Following a standard preconditioning and a 23-hour cold soak, an FTP (Federal Test Procedure) emissions test was performed. Although exhaust temperatures during the preconditioning were not hot enough to melt the phase-change material, the vacuum insulation performed well, resulting in a converter temperature of 146°C after the 23-hour cold soak at 27°C.
Technical Paper

Changes in Reliability During the Design and Development Process of a Vehicle's Electrical/Electronic Systems

The changes in reliability of the Electrical/Electronic Systems of a vehicle-line during its early design and development engineering processes have been studied. A computerized vehicle failure tracking system was used to provide results from several stages of early development vehicle testing at the proving grounds. The data were analyzed using a software program that assumes that failures in a repairable system, such as a car, occur as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Results suggest that, under normal circumstances, a significant and quantitative improvement in reliability is achievable as the system or component design progresses through the early design and development processes. This also provides a means of predicting future system(s) reliability when the system(s) is in production.
Technical Paper

Development of a Rubber-Like Headform Skin Model for Predicting the Head Injury Criterion (HIC)

This paper describes the development of a rubber-like skin Finite Elements Model (FEM) for the Hybrid III headform and an experimental method to determine its material properties. The finite element modeling procedures, using material parameters derived from tests conducted on the headform skin (rubber) material, are described. Dynamic responses and computations of HIC using the developed headform model show that an Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic (EPH) material model of the rubber can be used for headform impact simulations. The results obtained from the headform simulation using an EPH rubber material model and drop tower tests of the headform on both a rigid and a deformable structure will be compared, in order to show the applicability of the EPH model.
Technical Paper

Network I/O and System Considerations

The J1850 bus requirements promote an unique and well characterized physical layer behavior developed through the learning curve of previous multiplex solutions. Design requirements such as: 1) Reliably interconnecting all of the vehicle's most complex modules, 2) Consistently withstanding the vehicle's harsh environment, and 3) Meeting SAE's functionality requirements, were all a formidable task to achieve. This paper will highlight the path taken to achieve a J1850 Bus interface which successfully met all of the design and functional goals. Chrysler's C2D insights will be discussed and related to goals for J1850. Other design considerations will also be discussed such as EMC issues, custom test equipment, and vehicle and component testability. In turn, silicon processes with special structures and topologies will be discussed relating the specific design with the needed electrical behavior. The HIP7020 J1850 BUS TRANSCEIVER I/O for MULTIPLEX WIRING accomplishes these requirements.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction in Sheet Forming Simulation

Although numerical simulation techniques for sheet metal forming become increasingly maturing in recent years, prediction of springback remains a topic of current investigation. The main point of this paper is to illustrate the effectiveness of a modelling approach where static implicit schemes are used for the prediction of springback regardless whether a static implicit or dynamic explicit scheme is used in the forming simulation. The approach is demonstrated by revisiting the 2-D draw bending of NUMISHEET'93 and numerical results on two real world stampings.
Technical Paper

Dodge Ram Pickup Vehicle: From Human Factors Development to Production Intent Metal Assembly

To evaluate and refine interior architecture of the new Dodge Ram pickup truck three years before production, a road worthy interior package validation buck was built using a fiberglass body shell. Molds for the shell were made using CAD/CAM techniques. Advanced CAD/CAM techniques were used to build the interior buck of a subsequent model from individual panels molded in carbon fiber. This buck also included inner structural panels and interior trim components taken from CAD data. For this and subsequent new vehicle programs, refinement of construction techniques allows the bucks to serve as aids in product design and manufacturing feasibility studies.