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Technical Paper

Tonal Metrics in the Presence of Masking Noise and Correlation to Subjective Assessment

2014-04-01
2014-01-0892
As the demand for Sound Quality improvements in vehicles continues to grow, robust analysis methods must be established to clearly represent end-user perception. For vehicle sounds which are tonal by nature, such as transmission or axle whine, the common practice of many vehicle manufacturers and suppliers is to subjectively rate the performance of a given part for acceptance on a scale of one to ten. The polar opposite of this is to measure data and use the peak of the fundamental or harmonic orders as an objective assessment. Both of these quantifications are problematic in that the former is purely subjective and the latter does not account for the presence of masking noise which has a profound impact on a driver's assessment of such noises. This paper presents the methodology and results of a study in which tonal noises in the presence of various level of masking noise were presented to a group of jurors in a controlled environment.
Technical Paper

A Technique to Predict Thermal Buckling in Automotive Body Panels by Coupling Heat Transfer and Structural Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0943
This paper describes a comprehensive methodology for the simulation of vehicle body panel buckling in an electrophoretic coat (electro-coat or e-coat) and/or paint oven environment. The simulation couples computational heat transfer analysis and structural analysis. Heat transfer analysis is used to predict temperature distribution throughout a vehicle body in curing ovens. The vehicle body temperature profile from the heat transfer analysis is applied as an input for a structural analysis to predict buckling. This study is focused on the radiant section of the curing ovens. The radiant section of the oven has the largest temperature gradients within the body structure. This methodology couples a fully transient thermal analysis to simulate the structure through the electro-coat and paint curing environments with a structural, buckling analysis.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Metal Gainers for Advanced High Strength Steel Flanging

2014-04-01
2014-01-0985
Forming a metal gainer is a common technique used to gather material in a high stretch region along an edge in preparation for a subsequent flanging operation. This technique has proven to be successful for mild steels, but needs to be evaluated for the applicability to advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The Auto/Steel Partnership High Strength Stamping Team launched a project for this study. Experimental trials were conducted on gainer forming, trimming and flanging. Twelve (12) AHSS have been tested with tensile strengths ranging from 460 to 1240 MPa. Edge stretch limits for flanging have been evaluated and compared to flanging without gainers. Different trimming and flanging approaches have also been tried. The results show that metal gainers are not advantageous for flanging of higher strength AHSS.
Technical Paper

Automotive Vehicle Body Temperature Prediction in a Paint Oven

2014-04-01
2014-01-0644
Automotive vehicle body electrophoretic (e-coat) and paint application has a high degree of complexity and expense in vehicle assembly. These steps involve coating and painting the vehicle body. Each step has multiple coatings and a curing process of the body in an oven. Two types of heating methods, radiation and convection, are used in the ovens to cure coatings and paints during the process. During heating stage in the oven, the vehicle body has large thermal stresses due to thermal expansion. These stresses may cause permanent deformation and weld/joint failure. Body panel deformation and joint failure can be predicted by using structural analysis with component surface temperature distribution. The prediction will avoid late and costly changes to the vehicle design. The temperature profiles on the vehicle components are the key boundary conditions used to perform structure analysis.
Technical Paper

A Mesoscopic-Stress Based Fatigue Limit Theory - A Revised Dang Van's Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0902
Dang Van (Dang Van et al., 1982 and Dang Van, 1993) states that for an infinite lifetime (near fatigue limit), crack nucleation in slip bands may occur at the most unfavorable oriented grains, which are subject to plastic deformation even if the macroscopic stress is elastic. Since the residual stresses in these plastically deformed grains are induced by the restraining effect of the adjacent grains, it is assumed that the residual stresses are stabilized at a mesoscopic level. These stresses are currently approximated by the macroscopic hydrostatic stress defined by the normal stresses to the faces of an octahedral element oriented with the faces symmetric to the principal axis; mathematically they are equal to each other and they are the average of the principal stresses.
Technical Paper

Application of the Glinka's ESED Criterion in Optimization Design

2014-04-01
2014-01-0912
In order to take into account the local material non-linear elastic-plastic effects generated by notches, Glinka proposed the equivalent strain energy density (ESED) Criterion which has been widely accepted and used in fatigue theory and calculation for the last few decades. In this paper, Glinka's criterion is applied to structural optimization design for elastic-plastic correction to consider material non-linear elastic-plastic effects. The equivalent (fictitious) stress was derived from Glinka's Criterion equation for the commonly used Ramberg-Osgood and bi-linear stress and strain relationships. This equivalent stress can be used as the stress boundary constraint threshold in structural optimization design to control the elastic-plastic stress or strain in nonlinear optimization.
Technical Paper

Fuel Tank Strap Fatigue Sensitivity Study under Fuel Level Variation and Payload Variation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0921
Fuel Tank Straps very often get different durability fatigue test results from different types of durability testing such as shaker table vibration, road test simulator (RTS) vehicle testing and proving ground vehicle durability testing. One test produces good durability results and other may indicate some durability risk. A special study was conducted to address this inconsistency. It was found that fuel level in the tank plays a big role in fuel tank strap durability. Higher fuel levels in a tank produce higher loads in straps and lower fatigue life. This paper will use a CAE fuel tank strap model and acquired proving ground strap load data to study fuel level influence in fuel tank strap durability. The fuel level study includes a full tank of fuel, 3 quarters tank of fuel, a half tank of fuel and one quarter tank of fuel.
Journal Article

Fatigue Based Lightweight Optimization of a Pickup Cargo Box with Advanced High Strength Steels

2014-04-01
2014-01-0913
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) offer a good balance of strength, durability, crash energy absorption and formability. Applications of AHSS for lightweight designs of automotive structures are accelerating in recent years to meet the tough new CAFE standard for vehicle fuel economy by 2025. At the same time, the new generation pickup cargo box is to be designed for a dramatic increase in payload. Upgrading the box material from conventional mild steels to AHSS is necessary to meet the conflicting requirements of vehicle light weighting and higher payload. In this paper, typical AHSS grades such as DP590 and DP780 were applied to selected components of the pickup cargo box for weight reduction while meeting the design targets for fatigue, strength and local stiffness.
Journal Article

Development of Corrosion Testing Protocols for Magnesium Alloys and Magnesium-Intensive Subassemblies

2013-04-08
2013-01-0978
Corrosion tendency is one of the major inhibitors for increased use of magnesium alloys in automotive structural applications. Moreover, systematic or standardized methods for evaluation of both general and galvanic corrosion of magnesium alloys, either as individual components or eventually as entire subassemblies, remains elusive, and receives little attention from professional and standardization bodies. This work reports outcomes from an effort underway within the U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership - ‘USAMP’ (Chrysler, Ford and GM) directed toward enabling technologies and knowledge base for the design and fabrication of magnesium-intensive subassemblies intended for automotive “front end” applications. In particular, subassemblies consisting of three different grades of magnesium (die cast, sheet and extrusion) and receiving a typical corrosion protective coating were subjected to cyclic corrosion tests as employed by each OEM in the consortium.
Technical Paper

2013 SRT Viper Carbon Fiber X-Brace

2013-04-08
2013-01-1775
The 2013 SRT Viper Carbon Fiber X-Brace, styled by Chrysler's Product Design Office (PDO), is as much of a work of art as it is an engineered structural component. Presented in this paper is the design evolution, development and performance refinement of the composite X-Brace (shown in Figure 1). The single-piece, all Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) X-Brace, an important structural component of the body system, was developed from lightweight carbon fiber material to maximize weight reduction and meet performance targets. The development process was driven extensively by virtual engineering, which applied CAE analysis and results to drive the design and improve the design efficiency. Topology optimization and section optimization were used to generate the initial design's shape, form and profile, while respecting the package requirements of the engine compartment.
Technical Paper

Austempering Process for Carburized Low Alloy Steels

2013-04-08
2013-01-0949
There is a continual need to apply heat treatment processes in innovative ways to optimize material performance. One such application studied in this research is carburizing followed by austempering of low carbon alloy steels, AISI 8620, AISI 8822 and AISI 4320, to produce components with high strength and toughness. This heat treatment process was applied in two steps; first, carburization of the surface of the parts, second, the samples were quenched from austenitic temperature at a rate fast enough to avoid the formation of ferrite or pearlite and then held at a temperature just above the martensite starting temperature to partially or fully form bainite. Any austenite which was not transformed during austempering, upon further cooling formed martensite or was present as retained austenite.
Technical Paper

Die Wear Estimation in Automotive Sheet Metal Stamping

2013-04-08
2013-01-1171
Automotive industry's migration to usage of HSS (High Strength Steels), AHSS (Advance High Strength Steels) from conventional steels for their low weight and high strength properties has had its significant effects on die wear. The unpredictability of die wear can pose manufacturing issues, for example, undesirable tool life. Hence die wear has been gaining immense attention and lot of research work has been carried out to provide a die wear prediction method. This paper focuses on the method of estimating wear mathematically based on the mechanics behind die wear phenomenon. This is also an effort to study wear on die for an automotive component in critical areas for which the amount of wear are calculated. This study is further to be correlated with production data from die maintenance record, explicit measurement of die wear, etc., to validate the estimation.
Technical Paper

Optimization of High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet

2013-04-08
2013-01-1170
Traditional warm forming of aluminum refers to sheet forming in the temperature range of 200°C to 350°C using heated, matched die sets similar to conventional stamping. While the benefits of this process can include design freedom, improved dimensional capability and potentially reduced cycle times, the process is complex and requires expensive, heated dies. The objective of this work was to develop a warm forming process that both retains the benefits of traditional warm forming while allowing for the use of lower-cost tooling. Enhanced formability characteristics of aluminum sheet have been observed when there is a prescribed temperature difference between the die and the sheet; often referred to as a non-isothermal condition. This work, which was supported by the USCAR-AMD initiative, demonstrated the benefits of the non-isothermal warm forming approach on a full-scale door inner panel. Finite element analysis was used to guide the design of the die face and blank shape.
Technical Paper

Correlation Study on Parameters Affecting Springback Phenomenon in Stamping Simulation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1169
Springback is a major phenomenon in sheet metal forming process that has to be tackled to achieve the desired product with greater dimensional accuracy. Springback occurs due to elastic recovery of sheet metal after the stamping process. The automobile industry is gradually moving from use of conventional steels to advanced high strength steels (AHSS) for their light weight and greater strength properties; however AHSS possesses greater springback effect due to higher elastic limit which proves to be difficult to deal with the springback effect. Hence it is imperative that the counter measures are taken to minimize the springback effect. The purpose of the study is to showcase various factors that influence the prediction of springback phenomenon. In this study the simulation results are compared with scanned data of actual stamped panels and their deviation is studied.
Technical Paper

Shape Recovery Simulation of Flexible Airdam

2013-04-08
2013-01-0166
Airdam is an aerodynamic component in automobile and is designed to reduce the drag and increase fuel efficiency. It is also an important styling component. The front airdam below the bumper is to direct the air flow away from the front tires and towards the underbody, where the drag coefficient becomes less. The flexible airdam is made of Santoprene™ - thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV), which belongs to thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) family. When a vehicle is parked over a parking block, the flexible airdam will be under strain subjected to bending load from the parking block. If the airdam is kept under constant strain for a certain period, a set will occur and the force will decay over a period of time. Due to the force decay, the stress will reduce and this behavior is called as stress relaxation.
Journal Article

Random Vibration Testing Development for Engine Mounted Products Considering Customer Usage

2013-04-08
2013-01-1007
In this paper, the development of random vibration testing schedules for durability design verification of engine mounted products is presented, based on the equivalent fatigue damage concept and the 95th-percentile customer engine usage data for 150,000 miles. Development of the 95th-percentile customer usage profile is first discussed. Following that, the field engine excitation and engine duty cycle definition is introduced. By using a simplified transfer function of a single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system subjected to a base excitation, the response acceleration and stress PSDs are related to the input excitation in PSD, which is the equivalent fatigue damage concept. Also, the narrow-band fatigue damage spectrum (FDS) is calculated in terms of the input excitation PSD based on the Miner linear damage rule, the Rayleigh statistical distribution for stress amplitude, a material's S-N curve, and the Miles approximate solution.
Journal Article

Estimation of One-Sided Lower Tolerance Limits for a Weibull Distribution Using the Monte Carlo Pivotal Simulation Technique

2013-04-08
2013-01-0329
This paper introduces a methodology to calculate confidence bounds for a normal and Weibull distribution using Monte Carlo pivotal statistics. As an example, a ready-to-use lookup table to calculate one-sided lower confidence bounds is established and demonstrated for normal and Weibull distributions. The concept of one-sided lower tolerance limits for a normal distribution was first introduced by G. J. Lieberman in 1958 (later modified by Link in 1985 and Wei in 2012), and has been widely used in the automotive industry because of the easy-to-use lookup tables. Monte Carlo simulation methods presented here are more accurate as they eliminate assumptions and approximations inherent in existing approaches by using random experiments. This developed methodology can be used to generate confidence bounds for any parametric distribution. The ready-to-use table for the one-sided lower tolerance limits for a Weibull distribution is presented.
Journal Article

Online Driveline Fatigue Data Acquisition Method

2013-04-08
2013-01-1270
Two on-line algorithms have been developed to acquire driveline component loads in terms of revolutions at torque and rainflow cycle counting matrix. These algorithms have been implemented in real-time on a standard engine controller unit and have been optimized for fast run-time and low memory requirements. The revolutions at torque algorithm is intended to count the number of driveshaft revolutions in each torque level for each gear and store the number of counts in the engine controller memory. The rainflow cycle counting algorithm is intended to count driveshaft torque cycles and to store the number of counts in a two dimensional “from-to” matrix format in the engine controller memory. The revolutions at torque histogram data and the rainflow cycle counting matrix are then downloaded from the vehicle using the data collection device. Download occurs when the vehicle is serviced at a dealership.
Journal Article

Rainflow Counting Based Block Cycle Development for Fatigue Analysis using Nonlinear Stress Approach

2013-04-08
2013-01-1206
An accurate representation of proving ground loading is essential for nonlinear Finite Element analysis and component fatigue test. In this paper, a rainflow counting based multiple blocks loading development procedure is described. The procedure includes: (1) Rainflow counting analysis to obtain the relationship between load range and cumulative repeats and the statistical relationship between load range and mean load; (2) Formation of preliminary multiple loading blocks with specified load range, mean load, and the approximate cycle repeats, and construction of the preliminary multiple loading blocks; (3) Calibration and finalization of the repeats for preliminary multiple loading blocks according to the equivalent damage rule, meaning that the damage value due to the block loads is equivalent to that from a PG loading.
Journal Article

Assessing the Propensity for Valve Train Tick Noise

2013-04-08
2013-01-1737
Valve ticking noises within a cam actuated valve train can arise mysteriously. One valve train may produce valve ticking noises, while a second, geometrically similar valve train may perform more quietly. To better understand this phenomena, we examine in detail the prototypical motion of a valve driven by a rocker arm with cylindrical rocker pad. General features of a valve's motion through its guide, induced by a rocker arm with a cylindrical pad, are derived. From these general features of valve motion, guide contact points during lift events can be inferred, and as a result, detailed forces and moments acting on the valve may be derived. From this derivation of forces acting on the valve, a metric for assessing the propensity of a valve train to tick as a result of the valve stem impacting its guide is proposed. The proposed metric indicates how the likelihood of valve tick noise can be reduced through judicious choices for valve train geometries, clearances and surface finishes.
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