Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Injury Risk by Crash Severity, Belt Use and Head Restraint Type and Performance in Rear Impacts

2020-04-14
2020-01-1223
This study assesses the exposure distribution and injury risk (MAIS 4+F) to front-outboard non-ejected occupants by crash severity, belt use and head restraint type and damage in rear impacts using 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data. Rear crashes with a delta V <24 km/h accounted for 71% of all exposed occupants. The risk of MAIS 4+F increased with delta V and was higher for unbelted than belted occupants with a risk of 11.7% ± 5.2% and 6.0% ± 1.5% respectively in 48+ km/h delta V. Approximately 12% of front-outboard occupants were in seats equipped with an integral head restraint and 86% were with an adjustable head restraint. The injury risk was 0.14% ± 0.05% and 0.22% ± 0.06%, respectively. It was higher in cases where the head restraint was listed as "damaged". Thirteen cases involving a lap-shoulder-belted occupant in a front-outboard seat in which "damage" to the adjustable head restraint were identified.
Technical Paper

Multi-objective Restraint System Robust and Reliability Design Optimization with Advanced Data Analytics

2020-04-14
2020-01-0743
Vehicle restraint system design optimization is important for occupant protection and achieving high score in NCAP rating of five-Star. The target is to minimize the Relative Risk Score (RRS), defined by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NTHSA)'s New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). The design input includes restraint feature options (e.g., some specific features on/off) as discrete design variables, as well as continuous restraint design variables, such as airbag firing time, airbag vent size, inflator power level, etc. The optimization problem is constrained by injury criteria involve HIC, chest deflection/acceleration, neck tension/compression, etc., which ensures the vehicle meeting or exceeding all Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 208 requirements. Considering the local variability of input variables such as manufacturing tolerances, the robustness and reliability of nominal designs were also taken into account in optimization process.
Technical Paper

Calibration and Validation of GISSMO Damage Model for A 780-MPa Third Generation Advanced High Strength Steel

2020-04-14
2020-01-0198
To accurately evaluate vehicle crash performance in the early design stages, a reliable fracture model is needed in crash simulations to predict fracture initiation and propagation. In this paper, a generalized incremental stress state dependent damage model (GISSMO) in LS-DYNA® was calibrated and validated for a 780-MPa third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS), namely 780 XG3TM steel with a superior combination of high strength and excellent ductility. The fracture locus of the 780 XG3TM steel was experimentally characterized under various stress states including uniaxial tension, shear, plane strain and equi-biaxial stretch conditions. A process to calibrate the parameters in the GISSMO model was developed and successfully applied to the 780 XG3TM steel using the fracture test data for these stress states.
Technical Paper

Responses of the THOR in Oblique Sled Impacts: Focus on Chest Deflection

2020-04-14
2020-01-0522
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a Request for Comments (RFC) on proposed changes to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) in December of 2015. One potential change was the introduction of a frontal Oblique Impact (OI) crash test. The Test device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) in the front left seat was used in the proposed OI test. In the current study, eleven oblique sled impact tests were conducted. The environment was representative of a generic mid-sized sedan. The buck was mounted on a rigid plate that allowed the pre-test rotation of the buck relative to the sled axis. A generic mid-sized OI pulse was used. The pulse was applied in the longitudinal direction of the sled. The THOR was seated in the driver seat and was restrained with a 3-point belt, a driver airbag (DAB) and a knee airbag (KAB). The belt had a 4-2.5 kN digressive shoulder load limit (LL), a retractor pre-tensioner (RPT) and an anchor pre-tensioner (APT).
Technical Paper

Prevention of Snow Accretion on Camera Lenses of Autonomous Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0105
With the rapid development of artificial intelligence, the autonomous driving industry has attracted considerable attention among automotive companies. However, different factors negatively impact the adoption of the autonomous vehicles (AV) and delay their successful commercialization. Accretion of atmospheric icing, especially wet snow, on AV sensors causes obstruction to their lenses, making them prone to lose their sight and resulting in accidents. In this study, two different designs have been proposed in order to prevent snow accretion on the lenses via air flow across the lens surface. In both designs, lenses made of plain glass and coated with superhydrophobic surfaces were tested. While some researchers have shown promise of superhydrophobic surfaces for water repellency, more snow accretion were observed on those surfaces when compared to the plain glass lenses.
Technical Paper

Implementation, Improvement and Statistical Validation of Scoring by Milling Process on an Instrument Panel with In-Mold Grain Lamination

2020-01-13
2019-36-0155
This paper starts describing the in-mold grain lamination and bilaminated film cover when applied to instrument panels with seamless passenger air bag doors. It then offers a comparison between two different PAB door weakening processes, the laser scoring and the scoring by milling. It further discuss the scoring by milling process and analyses its implementation on a real case instrument panel. In the implementation case, the scoring pattern is checked against a pre-defined engineering specification and correlated to the results of a drop tower test, which shows the force necessary to break the PAB door. Three iterations are performed until the results for scoring pattern and breaking force are achieved. The breaking force results are then statistically validated against the specification and capability analysis.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Methodology for Engine Gear Rattle and Whine Assessment and Noise Simulation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0799
In this paper, a CAE methodology based on a multiphysics approach for engine gear noise evaluation is reviewed. The method comprises the results and outputs from several different analytical domains to perform the noise risk assessment. The assessment includes the source-path analysis of the gear-induced rattling and whining noise. The vibration data from the exterior surface of the engine is extended through acoustic analysis to perform the engine noise simulation and to identify acoustic hot spots contributing to the noise. The study includes simulations under different engine loading conditions with results presented in both time and frequency domains. Various sensitivity analyses involving different gear geometries and micro-geometries are investigated as well. Finally, the simulation results from three different engines are compared vis-a-vis.
Technical Paper

Seat Performance and Occupant Moving Out of the Shoulder Belt in ABTS (All-Belts-to-Seat) in Rear Impacts

2019-04-02
2019-01-1031
This study examined occupant and seat responses with ABTS (all-belts-to-seat) in rear end collisions. Some have claimed improved ABTS seat performance and retention in rear impacts than conventional seats. ABTS seats tend to have higher ultimate yield strengths than conventional yielding seats. Most ABTS seats have asymmetric seatback stiffness due to the need for additional structure on one side of the seat to support shoulder belt loads. Many designs use a single-side recliner and single stanchion that anchors the D-ring. This asymmetry results in twisting of the seatback in severe rear impacts. Seatback twist can allow the occupant to move away from the shoulder belt. Rearward pull tests on ABTS seats also demonstrates seatback twisting and in some cases large drops in load during the test. The added strength and stiffness of ABTS seats lead to designs that are vulnerable to sudden force drops from separated parts.
Technical Paper

FRED II Quasistatic Seat Testing Rearward: An Improved Method Based on the SAE H-point Manikin

2019-04-02
2019-01-1032
Various methods have been used to load a seat in the rear direction, including FMVSS 207, assorted body blocks and QST (quasistatic seat test). However, each method lacks some critical aspect of occupant loading of the seat or is too complex for routine development work. A new method is presented to determine the strength and energy transfer of a seat to an occupant in rear impacts that reflects how an occupant interacts with the seat in a rear impact. A metal-cast H-point manikin, called FRED II, was modified to support a loading bar and was pulled rearward into the seatback by a hydraulic ram. The force and displacement of the loading and the inboard and outboard seatback angle were measured. The response of the seat was recorded by video. The moment about the recliner pivot at peak force was determined by aligning the center of the recliner in side views of the seat position initially and at peak load.
Technical Paper

Design guidelines to avoid hygroscopic effects on outer handles

2018-09-03
2018-36-0257
Generally, exterior handles are one of the first parts that the user has physical interaction in the vehicle. A robust handle concept gives the user the idea of trust and good quality vehicle as first impression. Exterior handles, in which the concept is a handle body operated by applying a horizontal pull force, always pivoted in the front end and sliding against a reinforcement rail at rear end, are called strap handles. The kinetics seems to be simple, nevertheless special attention must be given regarding the interaction materials used in this system. Various plastic materials used in this system are subjected to water absorption at molecular level, changing their internal structure, resulting in swell and consequently a volume increase. This phenomenon that modifies the dimensions is known as hygroscopic expansion. In one hand, handles must present reduced wobble and free play.
Technical Paper

A Novel Vehicle Glove Box Design for Mitigating Lower Leg Dummy Responses in a Vehicle Frontal Impact

2018-04-03
2018-01-1326
Crash safety is a complex engineering field wherein a good understanding of energy attenuation capabilities due to an impact of various components and between different/adjacent components in the context of the vehicle environment is imperative. During a frontal impact of the vehicle, an occupant’s lower extremity tends to move forward and could impact one or more components of the instrument panel assembly. A glove box component design may have an influence on occupant’s lower extremity injuries when exposed to the occupant’s knees during a frontal impact. The objective of the present numerical study was to develop a novel glove box design with energy absorbing ribs and then comparing the results with the glove box with a knee airbag (KAB) design to help reduce anthropomorphic test device (ATD) lower leg responses.
Technical Paper

A Side Impact Taxonomy for USA Field Data

2018-04-03
2018-01-1331
An eleven-group taxonomy was created to classify real-world side crashes from the Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) component of the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). Three steps were taken to develop the classification scheme: (1) side-impact towaway crashes were identified by examining 1987-2016 model year light passenger vehicles with Collision Deformation Classification (CDC) data from the 1997-2015 calendar years of NASS; (2) case reviews, engineering judgments, and categorization assessments were conducted on these data to produce the eleven-group taxonomy; and (3) taxonomic groups were reviewed relative to regulated crash test procedures. Two of the taxonomic groups were found to have the most frequent crash types, each contributing approximately 22% to the total, followed closely by a third taxonomic group contributing approximately 19%.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs - Part III: Development of Transfer Functions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1444
An understanding of stiffness characteristics of different body regions, such as thorax, abdomen and pelvis of ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies under controlled laboratory test conditions is essential for development of both compatible performance targets for countermeasures and occupant protection strategies to meet the recently updated FMVSS214, LINCAP and IIHS Dynamic Side Impact Test requirements. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the transfer functions between the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies for different body regions under identical test conditions using flat rigid wall sled tests. The experimental set-up consists of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and femur/knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid low friction seat at a pre-determined velocity.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs – Part II: SID-IIs

2018-04-03
2018-01-1448
The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load-wall plates was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs - Part I: ES-2re

2018-04-03
2018-01-1449
The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load-wall plates was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
Technical Paper

Acetabulum Injury Investigation of Proposed US-NCAP in OI Mode

2018-04-03
2018-01-0538
In December 2015, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a Request for Comments on proposed changes to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). One potential change is the addition of a frontal oblique impact (OI) crash test using the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR). The resultant acetabulum force, which is a unique and specifically defined in the THOR dummy, will be considered as a new injury metric. In this study, the results of ten OI tests conducted by NHTSA on current production mid-sized vehicles were investigated. Specifically, the test data was used to study the lower extremity kinematics for the driver and front passenger THOR dummies. It was found that the acetabulum force patterns varied between the driver and passenger and between the left leg and the right leg of the occupants. The maximum acetabulum force can occur either on the left side or right side of a driver or a front passenger in an OI event.
Technical Paper

Bumper on Striker: Improve Customer Perception Regarding Door Closing Sound Quality

2017-11-07
2017-36-0327
Did you had opportunity to hear any unpleasant noise when closing some vehicle door? In some cases reminds a metallic touch condition, in other cases reminds several components loose inside the door. The fact is that this kind of noise is definitely unpleasant to the human ears. The good news is that this undesirable condition can be solved easily through of add a soft bumper in the striker; however, needs to pay attention in the material properties and tolerance stack-up conditions to avoid generate side effect, like as high door closing efforts, break parts, lose parts, etc.
Technical Paper

An Object-Oriented Approach to the Post-Processing of Cylinder Bore Distortion, Valve Seat Distortion, Valve Guide-to-Seat Misalignment and Cam Bore Misalignment

2017-03-28
2017-01-1075
In CAE analysis of cylinder bore distortion, valve seat distortion, valve guide-to-seat misalignment and cam bore misalignment, nodal displacements on the cylinder bore inner surface and on the gage lines of valve seats, valve guides and cam bores are typically output. Best fit cylinders, best fit circles and best fit lines are computed by utilizing the output displacements of the deformed configuration. Based on the information of the best fit geometry, distortions and misalignments are assessed. Some commercial and in-house software is available to compute the best fit cylinders, best fit circles and best fit lines. However, they suffer from the drawback that only one best-fit geometry can be computed at a time. Using this kind of software to assess distortions and misalignments of engine components would be tedious and prone to error, since data transfer as well as the intermediate computation has to be done by hand, and the process is not automatic.
Technical Paper

Field Risk Assessment Based on Cylinder Head Design Process to Improve High Cycle Fatigue Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-1085
In a separate SAE paper (Cylinder Head Design Process to Improve High Cycle Fatigue Performance), cylinder head high cycle fatigue (HCF) analysis approach and damage calculation method were developed and presented. In this paper, the HCF damage calculation method is used for risk assessment related to customer drive cycles. Cylinder head HCF damage is generated by repeated stress alternation under different engine operation conditions. The cylinder head high cycle fatigue CAE process can be used as a transfer function to translate engine operating conditions to cylinder head damage/life. There are many inputs, noises, and design parameters that contribute to the cylinder head HCF damage CAE transfer function such as cylinder pressure, component temperature, valve seat press fit, and cylinder head manufacturing method. Material properties and the variation in material properties are also important considerations in the CAE transfer function.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Head Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Risk Assessment under Customer Usage

2017-03-28
2017-01-1086
For aluminum automotive cylinder head designs, one of the concerning failure mechanisms is thermo-mechanical fatigue from changes in engine operating conditions. After an engine is assembled, it goes through many different operating conditions such as cold start, through warm up, peak power, and intermediate cycles. Strain alternation from the variation in engine operation conditions change may cause thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) failure in combustion chamber and exhaust port. Cylinder heads having an integrated exhaust manifold are especially exposed to this failure mode due to the length and complexity of the exhaust gas passage. First a thermo-mechanical fatigue model is developed to simulate a known dynamometer/bench thermal cycle and the corresponding thermo-mechanical fatigue damage is quantified. Additionally, strain state of the cylinder head and its relation to thermo-mechanical fatigue are discussed. The bench test was used to verify the TMF analysis approach.
X