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Journal Article

High-Fidelity Transient Thermal Modeling of a Brake Corner

2016-09-18
2016-01-1929
There is an increasing interest in transient thermal simulations of automotive brake systems. This paper presents a high-fidelity CFD tool for modeling complete braking cycles including both the deceleration and acceleration phases. During braking, this model applies the frictional heat at the interface on the contacting rotor and pad surfaces. Based on the conductive heat fluxes within the surrounding parts, the solver divides the frictional heat into energy fluxes entering the solid volumes of the rotor and the pad. The convective heat transfer between the surfaces of solid parts and the cooling airflow is simulated through conjugate heat transfer, and the discrete ordinates model captures the radiative heat exchange between solid surfaces. It is found that modeling the rotor rotation using the sliding mesh approach provides more realistic results than those obtained with the Multiple Reference Frames method.
Technical Paper

A Technique to Predict Thermal Buckling in Automotive Body Panels by Coupling Heat Transfer and Structural Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0943
This paper describes a comprehensive methodology for the simulation of vehicle body panel buckling in an electrophoretic coat (electro-coat or e-coat) and/or paint oven environment. The simulation couples computational heat transfer analysis and structural analysis. Heat transfer analysis is used to predict temperature distribution throughout a vehicle body in curing ovens. The vehicle body temperature profile from the heat transfer analysis is applied as an input for a structural analysis to predict buckling. This study is focused on the radiant section of the curing ovens. The radiant section of the oven has the largest temperature gradients within the body structure. This methodology couples a fully transient thermal analysis to simulate the structure through the electro-coat and paint curing environments with a structural, buckling analysis.
Technical Paper

Cause and Effect of Reversible Deactivation of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

2014-04-01
2014-01-1518
To meet TierII/LEVII emissions standards, light duty diesel (LDD) vehicles require high conversion efficiencies from the Aftertreatment Systems (ATS) for the removal of both Hydrocarbon (HC) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) species. The most populous configuration for LDD ATS have the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned on the vehicle behind the close coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF). This SCR position may require active heating measures which rely on the DOC/CDPF to provide heat through the combustion of HC and CO in the exhaust. Although DOCs are always impacted by their aging conditions, some aging conditions are shown to be both reversible and irreversible.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of Automotive Bodies in Static Pressure Gradients

2014-04-01
2014-01-0612
Recently, the Two-Measurement correction method that yields a wake distortion adjustment for open jet wind tunnels has shown promise of being able to adjust for many of the effects of non-ideal static pressure gradients on bluff automotive bodies. Utilization of this adjustment has shown that a consistent drag results when the vehicle is subjected to the various gradients generated in open jet wind tunnels. What has been lacking is whether this consistent result is independent of the other tunnel interference effects. The studies presented here are intended to fill that gap and add more realistic model and wind tunnel conditions to the evaluations of the performance of the two-measurement technique. The subject CFD studies are designed to greatly reduce all wind tunnel interference effects except for the variation of the non-linear static pressure gradients. A zero gradient condition is generated by simulating a solid wall test section with a blockage ratio of 0.1%.
Technical Paper

Simplified Approach of Chassis Frame Optimization for Durability Performance

2014-04-01
2014-01-0399
In recent trend, there is a huge demand for lightweight chassis frame, which improves fuel efficiency and reduces cost of the vehicle. Stiffness based optimization process is simple and straightforward while durability (life) based optimizations are relatively complex, time consuming due to a two-step (Stress then life) virtual engineering process and complicated loading history. However, durability performances are critical in chassis design, so a process of optimization with simplified approach has been developed. This study talks about the process of chassis frame weight optimization without affecting current durability performance where complex durability load cases are converted to equivalent static loadcases and life targets are cascaded down to simple stress target. Sheet metal gauges and lightening holes are the parameters for optimization studies. The optimization design space is constrained to chassis unique parts.
Technical Paper

Automotive Vehicle Body Temperature Prediction in a Paint Oven

2014-04-01
2014-01-0644
Automotive vehicle body electrophoretic (e-coat) and paint application has a high degree of complexity and expense in vehicle assembly. These steps involve coating and painting the vehicle body. Each step has multiple coatings and a curing process of the body in an oven. Two types of heating methods, radiation and convection, are used in the ovens to cure coatings and paints during the process. During heating stage in the oven, the vehicle body has large thermal stresses due to thermal expansion. These stresses may cause permanent deformation and weld/joint failure. Body panel deformation and joint failure can be predicted by using structural analysis with component surface temperature distribution. The prediction will avoid late and costly changes to the vehicle design. The temperature profiles on the vehicle components are the key boundary conditions used to perform structure analysis.
Technical Paper

A Study on Body Panel Stress Analysis under Distributed Loads

2014-04-01
2014-01-0906
In this paper, four possible CAE analysis methods for calculating critical buckling load and post-buckling permanent deformation after unloading for geometry imperfection sensitive thin shell structures under uniformly distributed loads have been investigated. The typical application is a vehicle roof panel under snow load. The methods include 1) nonlinear static stress analysis, 2) linear Eigen value buckling analysis 3) nonlinear static stress analysis using Riks method with consideration of imperfections, and 4) implicit quasi-static nonlinear stress analysis with consideration of imperfections. Advantage and disadvantage of each method have been discussed. Correlations between each of the method to a physical test are also conducted. Finally, the implicit quasi-static nonlinear stress analysis with consideration of geometry imperfections that are scaled mode shapes from linear Eigen value buckling analysis is preferred.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Body Panel Thermal Buckling Resistance Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0926
This paper discusses CAE simulation methods to predict the thermal induced buckling issues when vehicle body panels are subjected to the elevated temperature in e-coat oven. Both linear buckling analysis and implicit quasi-static analysis are discussed and studied using a quarter cylinder shell as an example. The linear buckling analysis could produce quick but non-conservative buckling temperature. With considering nonlinearity, implicit quasi-static analysis could predict a relative conservative critical temperature. In addition, the permanent deformations could be obtained to judge if the panel remains visible dent due to the buckling. Finally these two approaches have been compared to thermal bucking behavior of a panel on a vehicle going through thermal cycle of e-coat oven with the excellent agreement on its initial design and issue fix design. In conclusion, the linear buckling analysis could be used for quick thermal buckling evaluation and comparison on a series of proposals.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization

2014-04-01
2014-01-1815
Growing concerns about the environment, energy dependency, and unstable fuel prices have increased the market share of electric vehicles. This has led to an increased demand for energy efficient routing algorithms that are optimized for electric vehicles. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on finding the shortest distance or the least time route between two points. These approaches have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power and capacity limits, as well as vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a simulated solution to the energy efficient routing for electric vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of the electric vehicle when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Journal Article

Comparison of Austempering and Quench-and-Tempering Processes for Carburized Automotive Steels

2013-04-08
2013-01-0173
Carburized parts often see use in powertrain components for the automotive industry. These parts are commonly quenched and tempered after the carburizing process. The present study compared the austempering heat treatment to the traditional quench-and-temper process for carburized parts. Samples were produced from SAE 8620, 4320, and 8822 steels and heat treated across a range of conditions for austempering and for quench-and-tempering. Distortion was examined through the use of Navy C-Ring samples. Microstructure, hardness, and Charpy toughness were also examined. X-ray diffraction was used to compare the residual stress found in the case of the components after the quench-and-temper and the austempering heat treatments. Austempering samples showed less distortion and higher compressive residual stresses, while maintaining comparable hardness values in both case and core. Toughness measurements were also comparable between both processes.
Journal Article

Development of Corrosion Testing Protocols for Magnesium Alloys and Magnesium-Intensive Subassemblies

2013-04-08
2013-01-0978
Corrosion tendency is one of the major inhibitors for increased use of magnesium alloys in automotive structural applications. Moreover, systematic or standardized methods for evaluation of both general and galvanic corrosion of magnesium alloys, either as individual components or eventually as entire subassemblies, remains elusive, and receives little attention from professional and standardization bodies. This work reports outcomes from an effort underway within the U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership - ‘USAMP’ (Chrysler, Ford and GM) directed toward enabling technologies and knowledge base for the design and fabrication of magnesium-intensive subassemblies intended for automotive “front end” applications. In particular, subassemblies consisting of three different grades of magnesium (die cast, sheet and extrusion) and receiving a typical corrosion protective coating were subjected to cyclic corrosion tests as employed by each OEM in the consortium.
Technical Paper

2013 SRT Viper Carbon Fiber X-Brace

2013-04-08
2013-01-1775
The 2013 SRT Viper Carbon Fiber X-Brace, styled by Chrysler's Product Design Office (PDO), is as much of a work of art as it is an engineered structural component. Presented in this paper is the design evolution, development and performance refinement of the composite X-Brace (shown in Figure 1). The single-piece, all Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) X-Brace, an important structural component of the body system, was developed from lightweight carbon fiber material to maximize weight reduction and meet performance targets. The development process was driven extensively by virtual engineering, which applied CAE analysis and results to drive the design and improve the design efficiency. Topology optimization and section optimization were used to generate the initial design's shape, form and profile, while respecting the package requirements of the engine compartment.
Technical Paper

Austempering Process for Carburized Low Alloy Steels

2013-04-08
2013-01-0949
There is a continual need to apply heat treatment processes in innovative ways to optimize material performance. One such application studied in this research is carburizing followed by austempering of low carbon alloy steels, AISI 8620, AISI 8822 and AISI 4320, to produce components with high strength and toughness. This heat treatment process was applied in two steps; first, carburization of the surface of the parts, second, the samples were quenched from austenitic temperature at a rate fast enough to avoid the formation of ferrite or pearlite and then held at a temperature just above the martensite starting temperature to partially or fully form bainite. Any austenite which was not transformed during austempering, upon further cooling formed martensite or was present as retained austenite.
Journal Article

Assessing the Propensity for Valve Train Tick Noise

2013-04-08
2013-01-1737
Valve ticking noises within a cam actuated valve train can arise mysteriously. One valve train may produce valve ticking noises, while a second, geometrically similar valve train may perform more quietly. To better understand this phenomena, we examine in detail the prototypical motion of a valve driven by a rocker arm with cylindrical rocker pad. General features of a valve's motion through its guide, induced by a rocker arm with a cylindrical pad, are derived. From these general features of valve motion, guide contact points during lift events can be inferred, and as a result, detailed forces and moments acting on the valve may be derived. From this derivation of forces acting on the valve, a metric for assessing the propensity of a valve train to tick as a result of the valve stem impacting its guide is proposed. The proposed metric indicates how the likelihood of valve tick noise can be reduced through judicious choices for valve train geometries, clearances and surface finishes.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objectives Optimization of Fastener Location in a Bolted Joint

2013-04-08
2013-01-0966
During component development of multiple fastener bolted joints, it was observed that one or two fasteners had a higher potential to slip when compared to other fasteners in the same joint. This condition indicated that uneven distribution of the service loads was occurring in the bolted joints. The need for an optimization tool was identified that would take into account various objectives and constraints based on real world design conditions. The objective of this paper is to present a method developed to determine optimized multiple fastener locations within a bolted joint for achieving evenly distributed loads across the fasteners during multiple load events. The method integrates finite element analysis (FEA) with optimization software using multi-objective optimization algorithms. Multiple constraints were also considered for the optimization analysis. In use, each bolted joint is subjected to multiple service load conditions (load cases).
Technical Paper

CAE Simulation of Door Sag/Set Using Subsystem Level Approach

2013-04-08
2013-01-1199
The performance of door assembly is very significant for the vehicle design and door sag/set is one of the important attribute for design of door assembly. This paper provides an overview of conventional approach for door sag/set study based on door-hinge-BIW assembly (system level approach) and its limitation over new approach based on subassembly (subsystem level approach). The door sag/set simulation at system level is the most common approach adopted across auto industry. This approach evaluates only structural adequacy of door assembly system for sag load. To find key contributor for door sagging is always been time consuming task with conventional approach thus there is a delay in providing design enablers to meet the design target. New approach of door sag/set at “subsystem level” evaluates the structural stiffness contribution of individual subsystem. It support for setting up the target at subsystem level, which integrate and regulate the system level performance.
Technical Paper

Virtual Road Load Data Acquisition using Full Vehicle Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1189
The concept of full vehicle simulation has been embraced by the automobile industry as it is an indispensable tool for analyzing vehicles. Vehicle loads traditionally obtained by road load data acquisition such as wheel forces are typically not invariant as they depend on the vehicle that was used for the measurement. Alternatively, virtual road load data acquisition approach has been adopted in industry to derive invariant loads. Analytical loads prior to building hardware prototypes can shorten development cycles and save costs associated with data acquisition. The approach described herein estimate realistic component load histories with sufficient accuracy and reasonable effort using full vehicle simulations. In this study, a multi-body dynamic model of the vehicle was built and simulated over digitized road using ADAMS software, and output responses were correlated to a physical vehicle that was driven on the same road.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Combustion Modeling of Direct and Port-Fuel Injected Engines using a Reduced Chemical Mechanism

2013-04-08
2013-01-1098
A set of reduced chemical mechanisms was developed for use in multi-dimensional engine simulations of premixed gasoline combustion. The detailed Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) mechanism (1034 species, 4236 reactions) from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was employed as the starting mechanism. The detailed mechanism, referred to here as LLNL-PRF, was reduced using a technique known as Parallel Direct Relation Graph with Error Propagation and Sensitivity Analysis. This technique allows for efficient mechanism reduction by parallelizing the ignition delay calculations used in the reduction process. The reduction was performed for a temperature range of 800 to 1500 K and equivalence ratios of 0.5 to 1.5. The pressure range of interest was 0.75 bar to 40 bar, as dictated by the wide range in spark timing cylinder pressures for the various cases. In order to keep the mechanisms relatively small, two reductions were performed.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling and Validation of Combustion in a High-Efficiency Dual-Fuel Light-Duty Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1091
Using gasoline and diesel simultaneously in a dual-fuel combustion system has shown effective benefits in terms of both brake thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions. In this study, the dual-fuel approach is applied to a light-duty spark ignition (SI) gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Three combustion modes are proposed based on the engine load, diesel micro-pilot (DMP) combustion at high load, SI combustion at low load, and diesel assisted spark-ignition (DASI) combustion in the transition zone. Major focus is put on the DMP mode, where the diesel fuel acts as an enhancer for ignition and combustion of the mixture of gasoline, air, and recirculated exhaust gas. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the dual-fuel combustion with the final goal of supporting the comprehensive optimization of the main engine parameters.
Technical Paper

Developing Generic Load Cases by Defining Maximum Spindle Loads as a Function of Corner Weight & Tire Sidewall Height

2013-04-08
2013-01-1435
Generic spindle loads are used in the upfront analysis for vehicle durability development. They represent different load case into the vehicle suspension system, such as potholes, cornering, and braking. The advantage of using these generic load cases is that they can be used upfront in the durability development process before hardware is available. The generic spindle loads are cascaded through the suspension system to generate component loads which can then be used for stress analysis. The paper describes a study that was done to determine the validity of current generic spindle loads by analyzing spindle data from multiple vehicles in the same class. The paper will explain the initial data analysis that was done, which was normalizing the spindle loads by weight. In addition, the paper will then go into further detail on describing a relationship between spindle loads and tire sidewall height, which reduced the load scatter.
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