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Technical Paper

Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Extrusions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0410
Magnesium alloy extrusions offer potentially more mass saving compared to magnesium castings. One of the tasks in the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) ?Magnesium Front End Research and Development? (MFERD) project is to evaluate magnesium extrusion alloys AM30, AZ31 and AZ61 for automotive body applications. Solid and hollow sections were made by lowcost direct extrusion process. Mechanical properties in tension and compression were tested in extrusion, transverse and 45 degree directions. The tensile properties of the extrusion alloys in the extrusion direction are generally higher than those of conventional die cast alloys. However, significant tension-compression asymmetry and plastic anisotropy need to be understood and captured in the component design.
Technical Paper

FEA Predictions and Test Results from Magnesium Beams in Bending and Axial Compression

2010-04-12
2010-01-0405
Finite element analysis (FEA) predictions of magnesium beams are compared to load versus displacement test measurements. The beams are made from AM60B die castings, AM30 extrusions and AZ31 sheet. The sheet and die cast beams are built up from two top hat sections joined with toughened epoxy adhesive and structural rivets. LS-DYNA material model MAT_124 predicts the magnesium behavior over a range of strain rates and accommodates different responses in tension and compression. Material test results and FEA experience set the strain to failure limits in the FEA predictions. The boundary conditions in the FEA models closely mimic the loading and constraint conditions in the component testing. Results from quasi-static four-point bend, quasi-static axial compression and high-speed axial compression tests of magnesium beams show the beam's behavior over a range of loadings and test rates. The magnesium beams exhibit significant material cracking and splitting in all the tests.
Journal Article

Residual Stresses and Dimensional Changes in Ferritic Nitrocarburized Navy C-rings and Prototype Stamped Parts Made from SAE 1010 Steel

2009-04-20
2009-01-0425
Nitrocarburizing is an economical surface hardening process and is proposed as an alternative heat treatment method to carbonitriding. The focus of this study is to compare the size and shape distortion and residual stresses resulting from the ferritic nitrocarburizing and gas carbonitriding processes for SAE 1010 plain carbon steel. Gas, ion and vacuum nitrocarburizing processes utilizing different heat treatment temperatures and times were performed to compare the different ferritic nitrocarburizing processes. Navy C-Ring specimens and prototype stamped parts were used to evaluate size and shape distortion. X-ray diffraction techniques were used to determine the residual stresses in the specimens. Overall, the test results indicate that the nitrocarburizing process gives rise to smaller dimensional changes than carbonitriding, and that the size and shape distortion can be considerably reduced by applying appropriate ferritic nitrocarburizing procedures.
Journal Article

A Springback Compensation Study on Chrysler 300C Stamping Panels Using LS-DYNA®

2008-04-14
2008-01-1443
Springback compensation studies on a few selected auto panels from the hot selling Chrysler 300C are presented with details. LS-DYNA® is used to predict the springback behavior and to perform the iterative compensation optimization. Details of simulation parameters using LS-DYNA® to improve the prediction accuracy are discussed. An iterative compensation algorithm is also discussed with details. Four compensation examples with simulation predictions and actual panel measurement results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of LS-DYNA® predictions. An aluminum hood inner and a high strength steel roof bow are compensated, constructed and machined based on simulation predictions. The measurements on actual tryout panels are then compared with simulation predictions and good correlations were achieved. Iterative compensation studies are also done on the aluminum hood inner and the aluminum deck lid inner to demonstrate the effectiveness of LS-DYNA® compensation algorithm.
Journal Article

Distortion and Residual Stresses in Nitrocarburized and Carbonitrided SAE 1010 Plain Carbon Steel

2008-04-14
2008-01-1421
The focus of this study was to determine the residual stress and retained austenite profiles for carbonitrided and nitrocarburized SAE 1010 plain carbon steel and to relate these profiles to one another and to the distortion resulting from heat treatment. Navy C-ring specimens were used for the purpose of this study and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to measure both residual stress and retained austenite. The findings from this research are then applied to a manufacturing application involving the surface hardening of a thin shelled, plain carbon steel automotive component.
Journal Article

Microstructural Effects on Residual Stress, Retained Austenite, and Case Depth of Carburized Automotive Steels

2008-04-14
2008-01-1422
SAE 8620 and other steels are typically used in the carburized condition for powertrain applications in the automotive industry, i.e., differential ring gears, camshafts, and transmission gears. Although current recommended carburizing practice involves normalizing the steel prior to carburizing, elimination of this normalizing treatment could lead to significant cost reductions. This research examines whether the normalizing process prior to carburizing could be eliminated without negatively affecting part performance. This study focused on the effects of the initial microstructure on the residual stress, retained austenite, and effective case depths of carburized SAE 8620 and PS-18 steels.
Technical Paper

Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum for Automotive Closure Panel Applications

2008-04-14
2008-01-0145
Friction stir welding (FSW) shows advantages for joining lightweight alloys for automotive applications. In this research, the feasibility of friction stir welding aluminum for an automotive component application was studied. The objective of this research was to improve the Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) technique used to weld an aluminum closure panel (CP). The spot welds were made using the newly designed swing-FSSW technique. In a previous study (unpublished), the panel was welded from the thin to thick side using both an 8 mm and a 10 mm diameter tool. The 10 mm tool passed various fatigue tests; however, the target was to improve performance of the 8 mm tool, especially to increase the number of cycle before the first crack appearance during fatigue testing. In this study fatigue tests and static strength was recorded for weld specimens that were welded from thick-to-thin with an 8 mm diameter tool.
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