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Journal Article

Influence of Test Procedure on Friction Behavior and its Repeatability in Dynamometer Brake Performance Testing

2014-09-28
2014-01-2521
The efforts of the ISO “Test Variability Task Force” have been aimed at improving the understanding and at reducing brake dynamometer test variability during performance testing. In addition, dynamometer test results have been compared and correlated to vehicle testing. Even though there is already a vast amount of anecdotal evidence confirming the fact that different procedures generate different friction coefficients on the same brake corner, the availability of supporting data to the industry has been elusive up to this point. To overcome this issue, this paper focuses on assessing friction levels, friction coefficient sensitivity, and repeatability under ECE, GB, ISO, JASO, and SAE laboratory friction evaluation tests.
Technical Paper

The Psychological and Accident Reconstruction “Thresholds” of Drivers' Detection of Relative Velocity

2014-04-01
2014-01-0437
Relative velocity detection thresholds of drivers are one factor that determines their ability to avoid rear-end crashes. Laboratory, simulator and driving studies show that drivers could scale relative velocity when it exceeded the threshold of about 0.003 rad/sec. Studies using accident reconstruction have suggested that the threshold may be about ten times larger. This paper discusses this divergence and suggests reasons for it and concludes that the lower value should be used as a true measure of the psychological threshold for detection of relative velocity.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Residual Stresses on the Susceptibility to Hydrogen Embrittlement in Hardened Steel Components Subjected to Rolling Contact Conditions

2002-03-19
2002-01-1412
A review of many years of published work has shown that hydrogen embrittlement can occur under rolling contact conditions. Breakdown of lubrication and contamination with water have been cited as the probable sources of atomic hydrogen. In this paper, a unique fracture morphology is identified and the mechanism of the fracture progression from initiation to final catastrophic failure is proposed. Development of beneficial residual compressive stress near the contacting surfaces is one approach used to avoid this type of failure. Several alternative methods capable of developing a more desirable stress distribution will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Properties of Die Cast Magnesium Alloys

2000-03-06
2000-01-1122
This paper provides a review of the fatigue properties reported in the open literature for die cast magnesium-based alloys. Recently developed fatigue data, in the form of stress versus number of cycles to failure for bending fatigue (R=-1), are presented for die cast AM60B and AZ91D alloy specimens with thicknesses between 1 and 10 mm. The effects of specimen thickness and macrostructural features, such as porosity distributions and surface features (parting line and ejection pin marks), on the fatigue data are discussed.
Technical Paper

Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids: A Review

1999-09-14
1999-01-2865
There is an ongoing interest in biodegradable hydraulic fluids. Biodegradable fluids are often considered to include only vegetable oils, polyol esters and diester base stocks. However, other fluid base stocks including highly refined mineral oils, poly(alpha olefins) and fire-resistant fluids such as water-glycol hydraulic fluids are also biodegradable fluid alternatives. This paper will provide an overview of the international literature on biodegradable fluids, various international testing protocol, fluid base stocks, effect of oxidative stability, material compatibility and pump performance.
Technical Paper

Put the Intelligence in the System, Not in the Vehicles

1999-08-17
1999-01-2953
A unique system would solve traffic, fossil-fuel depletion, and environmental problems. Dual-mode private and commercial vehicles would be manually driven on streets and automatically controlled on maglev guideways. Busses and freight vehicles without wheels or drivers also used. Proposed guideway speeds: 100kph in cities, and 325kph between cities. System would be safer and have much higher capacity than existing highways or proposed “smart car” systems. One-third meter clearance between cars to be achieved by linear synchronous-motor propulsion. Capacity of single 100kph guideway to equal that of twelve highway lanes, and one 325kph guideway would be equivalent to forty highway lanes.
Technical Paper

The Hydrocycle Rocket Free-Piston Instant-Conversion Adiabatic Engine and One-Range, Infinitely Variable Hydrostatic Transmission System

1996-02-01
960089
The ideal internal-combustion crankshaft engine would burn all the fuel near top center without detonation, then expand the whole charge until exhaust Both events are impossible with current piston engines. The Hydrocycle Rocket Piston Engine concept employs a free piston in the head of a two-stroke-cycle engine. Combustion between the crank piston and the free piston allows direct conversion of combustion fluid expansion to hydrostatic fluid flow and accumulator gas compression with perfect timing and minimum thermal and mechanical losses. An infinitely variable, radial hydrostatic motor gives the driver smooth, gas-cushioned acceleration and stepless performance. Maximum economy is attained since the driver is forced to run the engine at optimum minimum speed to match road load oadin all traffic conditions.
Technical Paper

The SAE Oil Labeling Assessment Program-Three-Year Cumulative Report

1990-10-01
902090
A brief overview of the history and scope of the SAE Oil Labeling Assessment Program is presented. Then, the results of analyses on 893 samples of engine oil purchased in the retail market over the first three years of the program, are discussed. All samples were labeled with the API SF or SG Service Category, separately, or in combination with an API “C” category designation. Additionally, 43 engine oil samples found to be questionably labeled, were repurchased and analyzed; these results are included.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ground Proximity on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of the STOL Aircraft

1987-12-01
872308
The aerodynamics of the STOL aircraft can experience significant changes in proximity to the ground. A review of the existing data base and methodologies has been made and the results of that review are presented in this paper. The existing data show that in ground proximity the STOL aircraft will generally experience a reduction in the lift component regardless of the lifting configuration. Those configurations with integrated power and lift systems will have an additional effect of ground induced aerodynamic changes. This paper will discuss the existing data base and the deficiencies of that data base.
Technical Paper

Overview of the Driver Performance Data Book

1987-02-23
870346
This paper presents an overview of the Driver Performance Data Book under preparation by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). It includes a brief discussion of the purpose of the Data Book, the restrictions placed on the development effort, and how it is expected that it will be used by Agency personnel and others. Sample pages from the document are reproduced to illustrate the basic format, and the Table of Contents of each section is presented to identify the major topics covered and indicate the number of pages devoted to each.
Technical Paper

Global Trends in Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control

1985-02-01
850383
The purpose of this paper is to survey the adverse environmental impacts resulting from motor vehicles, to review technologies developed to address these problems, and to summarize the current status of pollution control programs around the world.
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