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Technical Paper

Effect of Temperature on Biaxial Strength of Automotive Windshields

This paper focuses on the effect of temperature on biaxial strength of curved, symmetrically laminated, automotive windshields. In view of their aspheric curvature, the measurement of biaxial strength requires a special ring-on-ring test fixture with compliant loading and support rings. The key factors that affect strength are (i) fatigue behavior of surface flaws, (ii) expansion mismatch between glass and PVB interlayer, and (iii) interfacial bond integrity. These, in turn, depend on the operating temperature which for automotive windshields can range from −40°C in winter to +50°C in summer. The data show that the biaxial strength is 21% higher at −40°C and 28% lower at +50°C than that at room temperature. An assessment of fatigue and interfacial bond integrity shows that strength changes of these magnitudes are predominantly caused by residual stresses arising from expansion mismatch between glass and PVB interlayer.
Technical Paper

Fatigue and Performance Data for Advanced Thin Wall Ceramic Catalysts

With stricter emissions standards, low back pressure requirements, and 100,000 mile durability specifications, ceramic catalysts have undergone significant developments over the past few years. The thrust in the ceramics area has centered on thin-wall structures to minimize back pressure and on high cell density for rapid light-off in close-coupled applications. The thin-wall structures are extruded from low expansion cordierite ceramic with adequate strength and thermal shock resistance equivalent to those of standard cordierite substrate. Examples of thin-wall substrate include 350XT which is extruded from a very low expansion dense cordierite ceramic, and 400/4 and 600/4 cell structures extruded from a low expansion modified cordierite ceramic. This paper will focus on the high fatigue resistance, excellent conversion efficiency, and low back pressure of 350 XT substrates with advanced washcoat system.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for a Ceramic Preconverter System

The preconverter is an essential element of exhaust gas treatment to help meet the tighter emission standards of TLEV and LEV levels. Its design must be chosen so as to meet the simultaneous requirements of compactness, faster light-off, low back pressure, high temperature durability and low cost. This paper presents design options for a ceramic substrate and durable package which lead to an optimum and cost-effective preconverter system. Preliminary data for high temperature physical durability of selected converter systems are presented. Performance parameters for light-off activity and back pressure are also computed and compared with those of standard substrates used in underbody application. Laboratory tests comprising of axial push-out test, high temperature vibration test, exhaust gas simulation test and the engine dynamometer test demonstrate the viability of ceramic preconverters for automotive application.