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Technical Paper

Optical Advantages of Thin Window Hybrid Windshields

The adoption of head-up displays (HUDs) is increasing in modern automobiles. Yet integrating this technology into vehicles with standard windshield (WS) laminates can create negative effects for drivers, primarily due to the thickness of glass used. The double ghosting in HUD images is typically overcome by employing a wedged PVB between the two glass plies of the laminate. Another solution is to reduce the thickness of the glass without impacting the overall windshield toughness. Although this still requires the use of a wedged PVB to eliminate HUD ghosting, the thinner glass provides opportunity to increase the image size. However, reducing the thickness of a soda-lime glass (SLG) ply or plies in a conventional soda-lime glass (SLG) laminate can significantly impact the robustness of the laminate to external impact events.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Lightweight Automotive Glass Solutions on Interior Noise Levels & Sound Quality

The automotive industry continues to develop technologies for reducing vehicle fuel consumption. Specifically, vehicle lightweighting is expected to be a key enabler for achieving fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Hybrid glass laminates that incorporate fusion draw and ion exchange innovations are thinner and thereby, offer more than 30% weight reduction compared to conventional automotive laminates. These lightweight hybrid laminates provide additional benefits, including improved toughness and superior optics. However, glazing weight reduction leads to an increase in transmission of sound through the laminates for certain frequencies. This paper documents a study that uses a systematic test-based approach to understand the sensitivity of interior vehicle noise behavior to changes in acoustic attenuation driven by installation of lightweight glass.
Journal Article

Reliability Evaluation of Thin, Lightweight Laminates for Windshield Applications

The use of lightweight materials to produce automotive glazing is being pursued by vehicle manufacturers in an effort to improve fuel economy. As glazing’s become thinner, reduced rigidity means that the critical flaw size needed to create fracture becomes much smaller due to increased strain under load or impact. This paper documents experiments focused on the impact performance of several alternative thin laminate constructions under consideration for windshield applications (including conventional annealed soda-lime glass as well as laminates utilizing chemically strengthened glass), for the purpose of identifying new and unique failure modes that result from thickness reduction. Regulatory impact tests and experiments that focused on functional performance of laminates were conducted. Given the increased sensitivity to flaw size for thin laminates, controlled surface damage was introduced to parts prior to conducting the functional performance tests.
Technical Paper

High Porosity Substrates for Fast-Light-Off Applications

Regulations that limit emissions of pollutants from gasoline-powered cars and trucks continue to tighten. More than 75% of emissions through an FTP-75 regulatory test are released in the first few seconds after cold-start. A factor that controls the time to catalytic light-off is the heat capacity of the catalytic converter substrate. Historically, substrates with thinner walls and lower heat capacity have been developed to improve cold-start performance. Another approach is to increase porosity of the substrate. A new material and process technology has been developed to significantly raise the porosity of thin wall substrates (2-3 mil) from 27-35% to 55% while maintaining strength. The heat capacity of the material is 30-38% lower than existing substrates. The reduction in substrate heat capacity enables faster thermal response and lower tailpipe emissions. The reliance on costly precious metals in the washcoat is demonstrated to be lessened.
Technical Paper

Electronic and Atomistic Roles of Cordierite Substrate in Sintering of Washcoated Catalysts for Automotive Exhaust Gas Emissions Control: Multi-scale Computational Chemistry Approach based on Ultra-Accelerated Quantum Chemical Molecular Dynamics Method

Multi-scale computational chemistry methods based on the ultra-accelerated quantum chemical molecular dynamics (UA-QCMD) are applied to investigate electronic and atomistic roles of cordierite substrate in sintering of washcoated automotive catalysts. It is demonstrated that the UA-QCMD method is effective in performing quantum chemical molecular dynamics calculations of crystals of cordierite, Al₂O₃ and CeZrO₄ (hereafter denoted as CZ). It is around 10,000,000 times faster than a conventional first-principles molecular dynamics method based on density-functional theory (DFT). Also, the accuracy of the UA-QCMD method is demonstrated to be as high as that of DFT. On the basis of these confirmations and comparison, we performed extensive quantum chemical molecular dynamics calculations of surfaces of cordierite, Al₂O₃ and CZ, and interfaces of Al₂O₃ and CZ with cordierite at various temperatures.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Aluminum Titanate Filter for Light Duty Diesel Applications

With the introduction of the current EU5 standards the diesel particulate filter has become a key element in the aftertreatment of diesel passenger cars. The upcoming future emission standards target primarily a further reduction in NOx emission as well as reduced fleet average CO₂ emissions. Although the particulate filter has no direct influence on the reduction of these species, the needs of future aftertreatment systems impose additional requirements on advanced filter technologies. In this paper we are introducing two new filter products based on a new low porosity aluminum titanate family that complement the current DuraTrap® AT filter products. The new products offer the potential for an increased soot mass limit or a significant reduction in pressure drop. The enhanced performance of the new filter products is discussed and demonstrated in a large number of experimental data obtained in engine bench tests.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of SoftMountSM Technology for Use in Packaging UltraThinwall Ceramic Substrates

Quantitative in-use pressure measurements were taken from packaging ceramic substrates with the SoftMountSM technology and two more traditional technologies, stuffing and tourniquet. Each technology was assessed using four separate mat materials. Mat selection enhanced the application of the SoftMountSM technology through the reduced pressures applied to the substrate during packaging. High temperature and low temperature thermal cycling studies were performed on the canned converters for the three packaging technologies so that an evaluation could be made of converter durability. The SoftMountSM packaging technology yielded the lowest pressures of all the processes studied, regardless of mat type. The laminar hybrid mat evaluated yielded the best combination of pressure and durability performance. Low temperature residual shear strengths following thermal cycling of the converters showed good correlation between the SoftMountSM technology and the stuffing method.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Environmental Aging on Intumescent Mat Material Durability at Low Temperatures

Mat material durability data in the form of fragility curves were generated in a critical temperature region for three intumescent mat materials considered for low temperature converter applications. The mat materials were tested in a tourniquet wrap converter configuration employing a cylindrical ceramic substrate. Prior to developing durability data for these mat materials, the test items were subjected to various environmental thermal and/or vibration aging conditions. Mat material fragility data were generated in terms of the dynamic force required to impose prescribed differential motion between the can and substrate, thereby, subjecting the mat material to a dynamic shearing like that expected during resonant excitation. As expected, it was found that the mat material capacity to resist shearing deformation decreased when the test samples were subjected to 36 hours of low temperature thermal cyclic aging.
Technical Paper

Ultra Thinwall Light-off Performance - Varying Substrates, Catalysts, and Flow Rates; Models and Engine Testing

To establish performance trends in ultra thin wall substrates and help support their selection criteria for designing catalytic converter systems, the light-off behavior of five Ultra Thin Wall ceramic substrates and two catalysts on an engine dynamometer are hereby examined. Modeling predictions are also compared to the engine results and the trends and implications are discussed. To quantify the performance of these different systems, light-off tests were performed on an engine dynamometer using a simulated FTP cycle. Five systems were evaluated (600/4, 600/3, 600/2, 900/2 and 1200/2) each with two different catalyst formulations. Engine bench aging was used to simulate typical aged conditions in the converter systems. Second by second emissions data for temperature, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, were used to evaluate the relative performances of the substrates.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cell Geometry on Emissions Performance of Ceramic Catalytic Converters

More stringent emissions regulations, space limitations for catalytic converters in modern automotive applications, and new engine technologies constitute design challenges for today's engineers. In that context high cell density thinwall and ultrathinwall ceramic substrates have been designed into advanced catalytic converters. Whereas the majority of these substrates have a square cell geometry, a potential for further emissions improvement has been predicted for hexagonal cell structures. In order to verify these predictions, a ceramic substrate has been developed combining the features of high cell density, ultrathin cell walls, and hexagonal cell structure. Based on modeling data, the actual cell density and wall thickness of the hexagonal cell substrate will be defined. The performance of that substrate will be assessed by comparing experimental emissions results using two modern Volkswagen engines.
Technical Paper

Ultra Thin Wall Substrates - Trends for Performance in FTP and US06 Tests

This paper compares the emissions performance of four ultra thin wall ceramic substrates with standard wall thickness product on a chassis dynamometer for two different substrate volumes. This comparison helps establish performance trends and provides useful information for selection of substrates in designing catalytic converter systems. This experimental study tests and compares four ultra thin wall products (400/4, 600/3, 600/4, and 900/2) with a standard wall product (400/6.5) at two different substrate volumes. Engine bench aging is used to simulate typical aged conditions. Temperature data as well as second by second and bag emissions data for hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen were used to evaluate the relative performances of the substrates. The US FTP and US06 driving cycles were used as protocols for the comparison. Results suggest that lower bulk density and higher geometric surface area interact to lead to lower emissions.
Technical Paper

Shear Strength of Cordierite Ceramic Catalyst Supports

An analytical model for estimating shear and bending stresses during canning of cordierite ceramic catalyst supports is presented. These stresses arise when the radial pressure distribution is nonuniform due, primarily, to variations in gap bulk density (GBD ) of intumescent mat around the perimeter of the substrate. Variations in GBD can occur during canning, regardless of the canning technique, due to anisotropic can stiffness or component tolerances or mat overlap. The model helps relate shear and bending stresses to substrate size and orientation, elastic modulii, cell size and wall porosity. If these stresses approach the corresponding strength of substrate, a shear crack may develop during or after the canning process depending on the magnitude of stress. A special test fixture was developed to measure the shear strength of ceramic catalyst supports, with different cell sizes, before and after the application of washcoat.
Technical Paper

A New High Temperature Ceramic Material for Diesel Particulate Filter Applications

Cordierite-based diesel particulate filters (DPFs) have been in use for heavy duty engine applications for nearly two decades. Recently, passenger car applications for DPFs have begun to appear in Europe due to tightening legislation. While cordierite-based DPFs work well in most applications, it appears that in the passenger car exhaust environment under some uncontrolled regeneration conditions, cracking and melting of the existing cordierite-based DPF products have been reported. The present paper focuses on the development of new, high temperature oxide ceramics for DPF passenger car applications. When designed properly, DPFs made from these new materials do not show cracking or melting under uncontrolled regeneration. The material properties (strength, elastic modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, etc.) and the filter performance properties (pressure drop, regeneration durability, etc.) have been characterized for DPFs made from these new materials.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Biaxial Strength of New vs. Used Windshields

This paper presents the strength data for conventional automotive windshields in both the new and used conditions. More specifically, the biaxial strength of outer surface of curved and symmetrically laminated windshield, measured in biaxial flexure, is reported. The relative contributions of inplane membrane stress, which can be significant for new windshields, and bending stress are quantified with the aid of strain gauge rosettes mounted on both the outer and inner surfaces of windshield. The strength distribution for new and used windshields, based on Weibull distribution function, is found to be multimodal indicating more than one family of surface flaws. Depending on handling damage during manufacturing, assembly and installation processes, the low strength region of new windshields can approach that of used windshields with 50,000+ road miles!
Technical Paper

Effect of Temperature on Biaxial Strength of Automotive Windshields

This paper focuses on the effect of temperature on biaxial strength of curved, symmetrically laminated, automotive windshields. In view of their aspheric curvature, the measurement of biaxial strength requires a special ring-on-ring test fixture with compliant loading and support rings. The key factors that affect strength are (i) fatigue behavior of surface flaws, (ii) expansion mismatch between glass and PVB interlayer, and (iii) interfacial bond integrity. These, in turn, depend on the operating temperature which for automotive windshields can range from −40°C in winter to +50°C in summer. The data show that the biaxial strength is 21% higher at −40°C and 28% lower at +50°C than that at room temperature. An assessment of fatigue and interfacial bond integrity shows that strength changes of these magnitudes are predominantly caused by residual stresses arising from expansion mismatch between glass and PVB interlayer.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Converter Mat Material Durability Measurement Under Controlled Thermal and Vibration Environments

To aid in the catalytic converter design and development process, a test apparatus was designed and built which will allow comparative evaluation of the durability of candidate mat materials under highly controlled thermal and vibration environments. The apparatus directly controls relative shear deflection between the substrate and can to impose known levels of mat material strain while recording the transmitted shear force across the mat material. Substrate and can temperatures are controlled at constant levels using a resistive thermal exposure (RTE) technique. Mat material fatigue after several million cycles is evident by a substantial decrease in the transmitted force. A fragility test was found to be an excellent method to quickly compare candidate materials to be used for a specific application. Examples of test results from several materials are given to show the utility of the mat material evaluation technique.
Technical Paper

Fatigue and Performance Data for Advanced Thin Wall Ceramic Catalysts

With stricter emissions standards, low back pressure requirements, and 100,000 mile durability specifications, ceramic catalysts have undergone significant developments over the past few years. The thrust in the ceramics area has centered on thin-wall structures to minimize back pressure and on high cell density for rapid light-off in close-coupled applications. The thin-wall structures are extruded from low expansion cordierite ceramic with adequate strength and thermal shock resistance equivalent to those of standard cordierite substrate. Examples of thin-wall substrate include 350XT which is extruded from a very low expansion dense cordierite ceramic, and 400/4 and 600/4 cell structures extruded from a low expansion modified cordierite ceramic. This paper will focus on the high fatigue resistance, excellent conversion efficiency, and low back pressure of 350 XT substrates with advanced washcoat system.
Technical Paper

Advances of Durability of Ceramic Converter Systems

Governing bodies world-wide are setting increasingly tighter emission standards to help improve air quality. US and Californian LEV/ULEV standards are pace setting, European Stage II legislation has just become effective. In Brazil, the upcoming 1997 standards are also demanding for tighter emission control. The monolithic ceramic honeycomb catalytic converter -for more than the past 20 years- has been a reliable key element in the automotive emission control systems. In order to help meet tightened emission regulation as well to satisfy even more stringent durability requirement, an advanced thinwall ceramic Celcor XT has been developed for increased geometric surface area and reduced backpressure. The product properties as well as FTP and ECE emission and durability test results are being described in this paper. Converter system durability is also determined by robust canning and mounting systems. A durable mounting concept, especially for preconverters, is being described.
Technical Paper

Low Back Pressure, High Efficiency Automotive Cabin Air Odor Filters

Preliminary back pressure and adsorption performance results are reported for two activated carbon honeycomb materials. The carbon impregnated honeycomb (CIH) material is porous ceramic honeycomb with a complete impregnation and coating of activated carbon on all ceramic surfaces. It offers the potential to be a permanent odor filter in that it can be in situ electrically regenerated. It has adsorption performance similar to commercially available layered filters, but has much lower back pressure. The second material is an activated carbon honeycomb (ACH) and is not ceramic-based as is CIH. As such, it has much more activated carbon and superior adsorption performance. The back pressure is low, as with CIH. It has significant potential as a high-performing disposable odor filter.
Technical Paper

Systems Design for Ceramic LFA Substrates for Diesel/Natural Gas Flow- Through Catalysts

The monolithic, large frontal area (LFA), extruded ceramic substrates for diesel flow-through catalysts offer unique advantages of design versatility, longterm durability, ease of packaging and low Cost [1, 2]*. This paper examines the effect of cell density and cell size on catalyst light-off performance, back pressure, mechanical and thermal durability, and the steady-state catalytic activity. The factors which affect these performance characteristics are discussed. Certain trade-offs in performance parameters, which are necessary for optimum systems design, are also discussed. Following a brief discussion of design methodology, substrate selection, substrate/washcoat interaction and packaging specifications, the durability data for ceramic flow-through catalysts are summarized. A total of over 18 million vehicle miles have been successfully demonstrated by ceramic LFA catalysts using the systems design approach.