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Technical Paper

Cummins Smart Oil Consumption Measuring System

The advantages and disadvantages for the current oil consumption measurement systems, including the real-time oil consumption measurement and traditional weight methods, are reviewed. Based on the review, the Smart Oil Consumption Measuring System developed by Cummins Engine Co. in an effort to resolve some of the disadvantages of the systems developed earlier, especially compared to the Gravity Fed oil consumption measurement system, will be discussed. In addition, the uncertainty analysis of the Smart Oil Consumption Measuring System will also be briefly discussed here. The Smart Oil Consumption Measuring System has proven to be an effective tool to measure the oil consumption at almost any engine test conditions, including the steady and cyclic tests in a shorter time than most of traditional oil consumption measurement systems.
Technical Paper

Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on the Degradation Rates of Lubricating Oil in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

The specific goal of this project was to determine if there is a difference in the lube oil degradation rates in a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with an EGR system, as compared to the same configuration of the engine, but minus the EGR system. A secondary goal was to develop FTIR analysis of used lube oil as a sensitive technique for rapid evaluation of the degradation properties of lubricants. The test engine selected for this work was a Caterpillar 3176 engine. Two engine configurations were used, a standard 1994 design and a 1994 configuration with EGR designed to meet the 2004 emissions standards. The most significant changes in the lubricant occurred during the first 50-100 hours of operation. The results clearly demonstrated that the use of EGR has a significant impact on the degradation of the engine lubricant.
Technical Paper

Plastic Oil Rings for Diesel Engines: A Preliminary Evaluation

The ability of a piston oil ring to conform to liner distortions during engine operation is directly related to its radial stiffness. The ability to conform is also very important for controlling lubricant oil consumption and emissions. This paper describes the procedure utilized to investigate the technical feasibility of using flexible high performance engineering plastics to replace metal as base material for oil rings. Bench tests and engines were used to select and evaluate different types of plastics for wear resistance and structural integrity. Engine test results indicated no structural failures but wear levels were found to be unacceptably high for use in durable heavy duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

J366 Driveby Variability

The EPA Heavy Truck Driveby Noise test is used to regulate trucks over 10,000 pounds GVW. The EPA test procedure is based on SAE J366. The EPA/J366 procedure is used both as a regulatory compliance tool and as a development tool. When the test procedure is used as a development tool, the goal is to determine the most cost effective means of meeting the legal requirement. Since J366 was not intended as a development tool, it can be difficult or misleading to use it to make decisions on product configuration. In order to use J366 successfully in vehicle or engine development, one must understand and properly account for the inherent variability of the J366 driveby test procedure. This paper examines both the extent and some of the sources of J366 driveby test variability. Strategies are proposed to ensure the proper interpretation of test results. Several repeat tests are required to accurately determine a small change in driveby noise level.
Technical Paper

Survey of Winter '93 Low Sulphur Diesel Fuels in the U.S.

Reports of disabling diesel engine seal failures which accompanied the introduction of low sulfur diesel fuel in October '93 prompted an in-depth survey of diesel fuel chemical and physical properties. The purpose of the survey was to anticipate other possible problems which might arise with the newly introduced low sulfur fuels. The survey will produce a database containing over 1000 number 2 diesel fuels from various parts of the US. About 75% of the samples tested were on-highway low sulfur diesel fuels. Samples analyzed were from the D-A Lubricant Company, Cummins customers failures (truck fleets of various sizes), and a number of retail fueling stations. Properties under investigation are % Sulfur, Cloud/Pour Points, Viscosity, API Gravity, TAN/TBN, Boiling Range, Aromatics content, Heat Content, Lubricity, and Peroxide number.
Technical Paper

Development of a Bench Test to Detect Oils Corrosive to Engine Components

Corrosive wear of non-ferrous engine components by lubricants is a concern of all major heavy duty diesel engine manufacturers since warranty on key engine components has been extended to 500,000 miles. Several commercial lubricants have been linked to premature cam and rod bearing failures induced by corrosion in certain fleets. Although the overall failure rate is low, specific fleets have experienced significantly higher failure rates due to the lubricants used. These failures usually occur at high mileages but less than 500,000 miles. This kind of slow corrosion easily escapes detection of engine tests contained in current oil specifications, and it represents a serious issue in long term warranty cost to diesel engine manufacturers. A comprehensive fleet database has been established to identify the most corrosive lubricants. These lubricants have served as reference oils to develop a corrosion bench test.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Liquid Lubricant Development Part I: Engine Tests

A high horsepower, low heat rejection diesel engine is being developed to meet future Army heavy combat vehicle requirements. This engine features high power output in a compact design that is oil-cooled allowing for a significant reduction in radiator size. This design requires a lubricant which can survive a sump temperature of 160°C, for 300 hours with transient sump temperature surges to over 177°C. A comprehensive high temperature lubricant development program has been initiated to address the need for this new design. A modified Cummins 10 liter diesel engine was used to simulate the operating condition of this low heat rejection engine. The premium commercial lubricant that was tested survived only 58 hours before completely losing oxidative stability. Several of the experimental lubricants completed the 200-hour peak torque endurance test.
Technical Paper

J1939 High Speed Serial Communications, The Next Generation Network for Heavy Duty Vehicles

Data link interfaces are a very important part of the heavy duty vehicle industry; sharing information between subsystems is vital. SAE Recommended Practices J1708, J1587 and J1922 were developed to provide standards for proprietary communications, general information sharing, diagnostic definition and early powertrain controls. The industry realized, however, that these standards would not accomplish the ultimate goal-that of a high speed control and communications network. The development of more capable serial data communications for the heavy duty vehicle industry was prompted by the following: the desire of component suppliers to integrate subsystems for improved performance; the advancement of technology; customer expectations; and government regulations.
Technical Paper

Engine Testing for Quality and Productivity

This paper discusses the various process changes, engine improvements, and equipment evolution that have contributed to significant increases in test productivity for heavy duty engines over the past several years. It deals with the development of short test cycles, methods of diagnosing operating problems, methods of maintaining test accuracy and discusses systems for minimizing test equipment down time. Finally it presents historical overview of the changes as they occurred at Cummins Engine Company and how performance improved over that transition period.
Technical Paper

Simulating the Lubrication System of a Diesel Engine

The entire engine lubrication system has been represented by a series-parallel network of flow passages and flow elements. The pressure distribution and flow rates in the network were computed according to pressure-flow characteristics of each element. The pressure-flow relationship for each network element was estimated using empirical pipe friction, expansion, and bend loss coefficients, as well as by using test rig results and a steady-state journal bearing model. The journal bearing model is basically that of the classical short bearing model with provision for heat transfer to the oil and the relative thermal growth of the journal and bearing system. When compared with diesel engine tests, the simulation predicted the pressure distribution throughout the engine and the flow rate through each branch within 10%.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Mission Simulation, 1970

Vehicle mission simulation is one component of a system designed to optimize selection and operation of on-highway vehicles. The focus of vehicle mission simulation is on equipment specification. It can predict the physical and financial performance of equipment alternatives, identify opportunities and correct problems before a truck is purchased.