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Technical Paper

Assessment of In-Use Solid Particle Number Measurement Systems against Laboratory Systems

Euro VI regulations in Europe and its adaptors recently extended the regulation to include Particle Number (PN) for in-use conformity testing. However, the in-use PN Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) is still evolving and has higher measurement uncertainty when compared against laboratory-grade PN systems. The PN systems for laboratory require a condensation particle counter (CPC). Thus, in this study, a CPC-based Horiba PN-PEMS was selected for performance evaluation against the laboratory-grade PN systems. This study was divided into four phases. The first two phases’ measurements were conducted from the Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) tunnel where the brake-specific particle number (BSPN) levels of 1010-12 and 1013 (#/bhp-h) were measured from the engines equipped with diesel particulate filter (DPF) and without DPF, respectively. In comparison against PN systems, PN-PEMS, on average, reported 14% lower BSPN from 82 various tests for the BSPN levels of 1010-11.
Technical Paper

Phenomenological Investigations of Mid-Channel Ash Deposit Formation and Characteristics in Diesel Particulate Filters

Accumulation of lubricant and fuel derived ash in the diesel particulate filter (DPF) during vehicle operation results in a significant increase of pressure drop across the after-treatment system leading to loss of fuel economy and reduced soot storage capacity over time. Under certain operating conditions, the accumulated ash and/or soot cake layer can collapse resulting in ash deposits upstream from the typical ash plug section, henceforth termed mid-channel ash deposits. In addition, ash particles can bond (either physically or chemically) with neighboring particles resulting in formation of bridges across the channels that effectively block access to the remainder of the channel for the incoming exhaust gas stream. This phenomenon creates serious long-term durability issues for the DPF, which often must be replaced. Mid-channel deposits and ash bridges are extremely difficult to remove from the channels as they often sinter to the substrate.
Journal Article

Model-Based Approaches in Developing an Advanced Aftertreatment System: An Overview

Cummins has recently launched next-generation aftertreatment technology, the Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system, for medium-duty and heavy-duty engines used in on-highway and off-highway applications. Besides meeting EPA 2010+ and Euro VI regulations, the Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system offers 60% volume and 40% weight reductions compared to current aftertreatment systems. In this work, we present model-based approaches that were systematically adopted in the design and development of the Cummins Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system. Particularly, a variety of analytical and experimental component-level and system-level validation tools have been used to optimize DOC, DPF, SCR/ASC, as well as the DEF decomposition device.
Technical Paper

Durability Test Suite Optimization Based on Physics of Failure

Dynamometer (dyno) durability testing plays a significant role in reliability and durability assessment of commercial engines. Frequently, durability test procedures are based on warranty history and corresponding component failure modes. Evolution of engine designs, operating conditions, electronic control features, and diagnostic limits have created challenges to historical-based testing approaches. A physics-based methodology, known as Load Matrix, is described to counteract these challenges. The technique, developed by AVL, is based on damage factor models for subsystem and component failure modes (e.g. fatigue, wear, degradation, deposits) and knowledge of customer duty cycles. By correlating dyno test to field conditions in quantifiable terms, such as customer equivalent miles, more effective and efficient durability test suites and test procedures can be utilized. To this end, application of Load Matrix to a heavy-duty diesel engine is presented.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Deactivation for Increased Engine Efficiency and Aftertreatment Thermal Management in Diesel Engines

Diesel engine cylinder deactivation (CDA) can be used to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the global freight transportation system. Heavy duty trucks require complex exhaust aftertreatment (A/T) in order to meet stringent emission regulations. Efficient reduction of engine-out emissions require a certain A/T system temperature range, which is achieved by thermal management via control of engine exhaust flow and temperature. Fuel efficient thermal management is a significant challenge, particularly during cold start, extended idle, urban driving, and vehicle operation in cold ambient conditions. CDA results in airflow reductions at low loads. Airflow reductions generally result in higher exhaust gas temperatures and lower exhaust flow rates, which are beneficial for maintaining already elevated component temperatures. Airflow reductions also reduce pumping work, which improves fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Future Challenges for Engine Manufacturers in View of Future Emissions Legislation

Countries around the world are expected to continue to adopt more stringent emissions standards for heavy-duty markets for both oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and greenhouse gases (GHG). While there is uncertainty about the timing and extent of these regulations, it is clear that significant reductions will be required to address urban air pollution and climate change concerns. The rate and pace of technology evolution and how it will affect the energy pathways for commercial transportation and industrial use are dependent on multiple variables such as national energy and environmental policies and public-private partnerships. Although it adds complexity, the engine system has great potential to evolve as it continues to be highly integrated into the super system for which it is producing power. This paper examines the potential opportunities and challenges for engine manufacturers to continue to be the supplier of power to vehicles and equipment of the future.
Technical Paper

Axial NO2 Utilization Measurements within a Partial Flow Filter during Passive Regeneration

Measuring axial exhaust species concentration distributions within a wall-flow aftertreatment device provides unique and significant insights regarding the performance of complex devices like the SCR-on-filter. In this particular study, a less complex aftertreatment configuration which includes a DOC followed by two uncoated partial flow filters (PFF) was used to demonstrate the potential and challenges. The PFF design in this study was a particulate filter with alternating open and plugged channels. A SpaciMS [1] instrument was used to measure the axial NO2 profiles within adjacent open and plugged channels of each filter element during an extended passive regeneration event using a full-scale engine and catalyst system. By estimating the mass flow through the open and plugged channels, the axial soot load profile history could be assessed.
Journal Article

Analytic Solution for the Flow Distribution and Pressure Drop of Ceramic Partially-Plugged Wall Flow Diesel Particulate Filters

A 1-dimensional analytic solution has been developed to evaluate the pressure drop and filtration performance of ceramic wall-flow partial diesel particulate filters (PFs). An axially resolved mathematical model for the static pressure and velocity profiles prevailing inside wall-flow filters, with such unique plugging configurations, is being proposed for the first time. So far, the PF models that have been developed are either iterative/numerical in nature [1], or based on commercial CFD packages [7]. In comparison, an analytic solution approach is a transparent and computationally inexpensive tool that is capable of accurately predicting trends as well as, offering explanations to fundamental performance behavior. The simple mathematical expressions that have been obtained facilitate rational decision-making when designing partial filters, and could also reduce the complexity of OBD logic necessary to control onboard filter performance.
Technical Paper

Development and Demonstration of a Soot Generator Integrated Bench Reactor

Experimental evaluation of soot trapping and oxidation behaviors of various diesel particulate filters (DPF) has been traditionally hampered by several experimental difficulties, such as the deposition of soot particles with well-characterized and consistent properties, and the tracking of the soot oxidation rate in real time. In the present study, an integrated bench flow-reactor system with a soot generator has been developed and its capabilities were demonstrated with regards to: Consistently and controllably loading soot on DPF samples; Monitoring the exhaust gas composition by FTIR, including quantification of the soot oxidation rate using CO and CO2; Measuring soot oxidation characteristics of various DPF samples. Soot particles were produced from a laminar propane co-flow diffusion flame.
Technical Paper

Development of the Methodology for Quantifying the 3D PM Distribution in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter with a Terahertz Wave Scanner

Optimizing the performance of the aftertreatment system used on heavy duty diesel engines requires a thorough understanding of the operational characteristics of the individual components. Within this, understanding the performance of the catalyzed particulate filter (CPF), and the development of an accurate CPF model, requires knowledge of the particulate matter (PM) distribution throughout the substrate. Experimental measurements of the PM distribution provide the detailed interactions of PM loading, passive oxidation, and active regeneration. Recently, a terahertz wave scanner has been developed that can non-destructively measure the three dimensional (3D) PM distribution. To enable quantitative comparisons of the PM distributions collected under different operational conditions, it is beneficial if the results can be discussed in terms of the axial, radial, and angular directions.
Journal Article

Measurement of Dioxin and Furan Emissions during Transient and Multi-Mode Engine Operation

This study analyzed the impact of transient and multi-mode engine conditions on emissions of dioxins and furans from a variety of diesel aftertreatment configurations. Exhaust aftertreatment systems included combinations of diesel oxidation catalyst, diesel particulate filter, and either Cu/zeolite or Fe/zeolite selective catalytic reduction catalyst. EPA method TO-9A was modified for proportional exhaust gas sampling, whereas EPA method 0023A was modified for raw exhaust gas sampling. Dioxin and furan emissions were first measured with modified method TO-9A during Federal Test Procedure transient cycles, but no toxic dioxins or furans were detected. Measurements were then taken with modified method 0023A during Ramped Mode Cycles-Supplemental Emissions Test experiments. Because more rigorous pre-cleaning and sample extraction procedures were used with this method and lower detection limits were achieved by the analytical laboratory, some dioxin and furan congeners were detected.
Technical Paper

Decoupling the Interactions of Hydrocarbons and Oxides of Nitrogen Over Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

Oxidation of NO to NO₂ over a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) plays an important role in different types of aftertreatment systems, by enhancing NOx storage on adsorber catalysts, improving the NOx reduction efficiency of SCR catalysts, and enabling the passive regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). The presence of hydrocarbon (HC) species in the exhaust is known to affect the NO oxidation performance over a DOC; however, specific details of this effect, including its underlying mechanism, remain poorly understood. Two major pathways are commonly considered to be responsible for the overall effect: NO oxidation inhibition, due to the presence of HC, and the consumption of the NO₂ produced by reaction with hydrocarbons. In this work we have attempted to decouple these two pathways, by adjusting the catalyst inlet concentrations of NO and NO₂ to the thermodynamic equilibrium levels and measuring the composition changes over the catalyst in the presence of HC species.
Journal Article

Meeting the US Heavy-Duty EPA 2010 Standards and Providing Increased Value for the Customer

The paper will discuss the design and development of heavy-duty diesel engines to meet the US EPA 2010 on-highway standards - 0.2 g/HP-hr NOx and 0.01 g/HP-hr particulate matter (PM). In meeting these standards a combination of in-cylinder control and aftertreatment control for both NOx and particulate has been used. For NOx control, a combination of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is used. The SCR catalyst uses copper zeolite to achieve high levels of NOx conversion efficiency with minimal ammonia slip and unparalleled thermal durability. For particulate control, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) with upstream oxidation catalyst (DOC) is used. While the DPF may be actively regenerated when required, it operates predominantly with passive regeneration - enabled by the high NOx levels between the engine and the DPF, associated with high efficiency SCR systems and NO₂ production across the DOC.
Journal Article

Diesel Particulate Filter System - Effect of Critical Variables on the Regeneration Strategy Development and Optimization

Regeneration of diesel particulate filters poses major challenges in developing the particulate matter emission control technology to meet EPA 2007/2010 emissions regulations. The problem areas are multifold due to the complexity involved in designing the filter system, developing regeneration strategies and controlling the regeneration process. This paper discusses the need for active regeneration systems. It also addresses several key limitations and trade-offs between the regeneration strategy, chemical kinetics, exhaust gas temperature and the regeneration efficiency. Passive regeneration of diesel particulate filter systems is known to be highly dependent on the engine-out [NOx/PM] ratio as well as exhaust temperature over the duty cycle. Using catalytic oxidation of auxiliary fuel injected into the system, the exhaust gas temperature can be successfully enhanced for filter regeneration.
Technical Paper

Real World Study of Diesel Particulate Filter Ash Accumulation in Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

In April 2003, a small field study was initiated to evaluate the effect of lube oil formulations on ash accumulation in heavy-duty diesel DPFs. Nine (9) Fuel Delivery Trucks were retrofitted with passive diesel particulate filters and fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel which contains less than 15 ppm sulfur. Each vehicle operated in the field for 18 months or approximately 160,000 miles (241,401 km) using one of three lube oil formulations. Ash accumulation was determined for each vehicle and compared between the three differing lube oil formulations. Ash analyses, used lube oil analysis and filter substrate evaluations were performed to provide a complete picture of DPF operations. The evaluation also examined some of the key parameters that allows for the successful implementation of the passive DPF in this heavy-duty application.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of the Kinetics of Diesel Soot Oxidation by O2 - Modeling Consequences

Several complementary experimental techniques were applied to investigate kinetics of diesel soot oxidation by O2 in an attempt to provide accurate data for modeling of the Diesel Particulate Filters regeneration process. For two diesel soot samples with measurably different properties, it was shown that the complexity of their overall kinetic behavior was due to an initial period of rapidly changing reactivity. This initial high reactivity was understood not to be related to the SOF, and was quantitatively correlated to the extent of soot pre-oxidation. This initial reactivity can affect the averaged apparent kinetic parameters, for example resulting in the lower apparent activation energy values. After the initial soot pre-oxidation, which consumed ∼10-25% of carbon, the remaining soot was behaving very uniformly, producing linear Arrhenius plots in a remarkably broad range of temperatures (330-610°C) and integral conversions (up to 90%).
Technical Paper

A Fundamental Consideration on NOx Adsorber Technology for DI Diesel Application

Diesel engines are far more efficient than gasoline engines of comparable size, and emit less greenhouse gases that have been implicated in global warming. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15 ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same low emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulation. Achieving such low emissions cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOx and particulate matter (PM) aftertreatment control devices. There is a widespread consensus that NOx adsorbers and particulate filter are required in order for diesel engines to meet the 2007 emissions regulations for NOx and PM. In this paper, the key exhaust characteristics from an advanced diesel engine are reviewed.