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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Gasoline Additive Packages to Assess Their Ability to Clean Up Intake Valve Deposits in Automotive Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0261
The majority of passenger car and light-duty trucks, especially in North America, operate using port-fuel injection (PFI) engines. In PFI engines, the fuel is injected onto the intake valves and then pulled into the combustion chamber during the intake stroke. Components of the fuel are unstable in this environment and form deposits on the upstream face of the intake valve. These deposits have been found to affect a vehicle’s drivability, emissions and engine performance. Therefore, it is critical for the gasoline to be blended with additives containing detergents capable of removing the harmful intake valve deposits (IVDs). Established standards are available to measure the propensity of IVD formation, for example the ASTM D6201 engine test and ASTM D5500 vehicle test.
Technical Paper

Combined Benefits of Variable Valve Actuation and Low-Pressure EGR on SI Engine Efficiency Part 1: Part Load

2019-04-02
2019-01-0241
Modern spark ignited engines face multiple barriers to achieving higher thermal efficiency. This study investigated the potential of utilizing both continuously variable valve actuation (VVA) and low-pressure cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to improve engine thermal efficiency at part-load conditions. Six speed / load points were investigated on a 1.6 L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine. A design of experiment (DoE) approach using the Box-Behnken surface response model was conducted. The DoE results revealed different brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) responses to the valve phasing and the intake valve lift at different operating conditions. Further engine testing was carried out at each speed / load point to confirm the engine efficiency and combustion performance when targeting different valvetrain controls and EGR strategies. The results indicated that utilizing the VVA system could always reduce BSFC at the studied operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Combined Benefits of Variable Valve Actuation and Low-Pressure EGR on SI Engine Efficiency Part 2: High Load

2019-04-02
2019-01-0237
The abnormal autoignition of the unburned gas, namely knock, at high loads is a major challenge for modern spark ignited engines. Knock prevents the application of high compression ratios due to the increased unburned gas temperature, and it becomes increasingly severe for downsized engines with high specific powers. The current paper reports on the potential of utilizing continuously variable valve actuation (VVA) and low-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce knock tendency at high loads. Five speed / load points were investigated on a 1.6 L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) response to the valve phasing and the intake valve lift was investigated with the design of experiment (DoE) approach. The DoE was conducted using a Box-Behnken surface response model. The results exhibited insensitive response of BSFC to intake valve lift and overlap.
Technical Paper

An Exploratory Look at an Aggressive Miller Cycle for High BMEP Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0231
Through aggressive application of the Miller Cycle, using two-stage turbocharging, medium speed diesel marine and stationary power engines are demonstrating over 30 bar rated power BMEP, and over 50 percent brake thermal efficiency. The objective of this work was to use engine cycle simulation to assess the degree to which the aggressive application of the Miller Cycle could be scaled to displacements and speeds more typical of medium and heavy truck engines. A 9.2 liter six-cylinder diesel engine was modeled. Without increasing the peak cylinder pressure, improved efficiency and increased BMEP was demonstrated. The level of improvement was highly dependent on turbocharger efficiency - perhaps the most difficult parameter to scale from the larger engines. At 1600 rpm, and a combined turbocharger efficiency of 61 percent, the baseline BMEP of 24 bar was increased to over 26 bar, with a two percent fuel consumption improvement.
Technical Paper

Predictive GT-Power Simulation for VNT Matching to EIVC Strategy on a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0192
The use of early intake valve closing (EIVC) can lead to improvements in spark-ignition engine efficiency. One of the greatest barriers facing adoption of EIVC for high power-density applications is the challenge of boosting as EIVC strategies reduce volumetric efficiency. Turbochargers with variable nozzle turbines (VNT) have recently been developed for gasoline applications operating at high exhaust gas temperatures. The use of a single VNT as a boost device may provide a lower-cost option compared to two-stage boosting systems or 48 V electronic boost devices for some EIVC applications. A predictive model was created based on engine testing results from a 1.6 L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine [1]. The model was tuned so that it predicted burn-rates and end-gas knock over an engine operating map with varying speeds, loads, compression ratios and fuel types.
Technical Paper

Multi-Domain Optimization for Fuel Economy Improvement of HD Trucks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0312
Fuel usage negatively impacts the environment and is a significant portion of operational costs of moving freight globally. Reducing fuel consumption is key to lessening environmental impacts and maximizing freight efficiency, thereby increasing the profit margin of logistic operators. In this paper, fuel economy improvements of a cab-over style 49T heavy duty Foton truck powered by a Cummins 12-liter engine are studied and systematically applied for the China market. Most fuel efficiency improvements are found within the vehicle design when compared to opportunities available at the engine level. Vehicle design (improved aerodynamics), component selection/matching (low rolling resistance tires), and powertrain electronic features integration (shift schedule/electronic trim) offer the largest opportunities for lowering fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Test Methodology to Quantify and Analyze Energy Consumption of Connected and Automated Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0116
A new generation of vehicle dynamics and powertrain control technologies are being developed to leverage information streams enabled via vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) connectivity [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. While algorithms that use these connected information streams to enable improvements in energy efficiency are being studied in detail, methodologies to quantify and analyze these improvements on a vehicle have not yet been explored fully. A procedure to test and accurately measure energy-consumption benefits of a connected and automated vehicle (CAV) is presented. The first part of the test methodology enables testing in a controlled environment. A traffic simulator is built to model traffic flow in Fort Worth, Texas with sufficient accuracy. The benefits of a traffic simulator are two-fold: (1) generation of repeatable traffic scenarios and (2) evaluation of the robustness of control algorithms by introducing disturbances.
Technical Paper

Particle Emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection Engines during Engine Start-Up (Cranking)

2019-04-02
2019-01-1182
Engine start-up (cranking) can be an important source of particle emissions from vehicles. With the penetration of GDI vehicles in the global vehicle fleet, it is important to analyze and understand the contribution of start-up particle emissions from GDI vehicles, and the potential effects of fuel properties on that process. In this work, chassis dynamometer based investigation on the effect of several gasoline fuels (commercial and blended) on both, naturally aspirated and turbocharged GDI vehicles were conducted to understand the importance of engine start up, in particular, cranking. 10 commercially available gasoline fuels were tested on a naturally aspirated 2010 model year GDI vehicle, 3 among these commercially available fuels were tested on another 2009 model year turbocharged GDI vehicle, and 8 blended gasoline fuels were tested on 12 other GDI vehicles (7 turbocharged and 5 naturally aspirated) ranging in model years 2011-2015.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Dedicated EGR on a 12 L Natural Gas Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1143
Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) converted a Cummins ISX 12 G in-line six-cylinder engine to a Dedicated EGRTM (D-EGRTM) configuration. D-EGR is an efficient way to produce reformate and increase the EGR rate. Two of the six cylinders were utilized as the dedicated cylinders. This supplied a nominal EGR rate of 33% compared to the baseline engine utilizing 15-20% EGR. PFI injectors were added to dedicated cylinders to supply the extra fuel required for reformation. The engine was tested with a high energy dual coil offset (DCO®) ignition system. The stock engine was tested at over 70 points to map the performance, 13 of these points were at RMC SET points. The D-EGR converted engine was tested at the RMC SET points for comparison to the baseline. The initial results from the D-EGR conversion show a 4% relative BTE improvement compared to the baseline due to the increased EGR rate at 1270 rpm, 16 bar BMEP.
Technical Paper

Microwave Enhancement of Lean/Dilute Combustion in a Constant-Volume Chamber

2019-04-02
2019-01-1198
High dilution engines have been shown to have a significant fuel economy improvement over their non-dilute counterparts. Much of this improvement comes through an increase in compression ratio enabled by the high knock resistance from high dilution. Unfortunately, the same reduction in reactivity that leads to the knock reduction also reduces flame speed, leading to the engine becoming unstable at high dilution rates. Advanced ignition systems have been shown to improve engine stability, but their impact is limited to the area at, or very near, the spark plug. To further improve the dilute combustion, a system in which a microwave field is established in the combustion chamber is proposed. This standing electric field has been shown, in other applications, to improve dilution tolerance and increase the burning velocity.
Technical Paper

Cooling Fan Selection in Power Car Application Using CFD and FEA Analysis

2019-04-02
2019-01-0900
This paper describes the methodology used to select an application-based fan that has optimum operating characteristics in terms of cooling air flow rate, fan power, and noise. The selected fan is then evaluated for structural strength. To evaluate different fans, complete rail coach under-hood simulations were carried out using steady-state 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. These simulations considered an actual, highly non-uniform flow field. For each fan option, fan power, air flow rate, and surface acoustic power was evaluated. Pressure profiles on the fan blades were studied to assess the effect of non-uniform downstream air passage designs. Surface acoustic power was calculated using broadband noise source (BNS) model in ANSYS Fluent®. Surface pressure profiles over fan blades imported from 3D CFD were used in finite element analysis (FEA) in ANSYS. Analyses were carried out for blade linear and non-linear properties.
Journal Article

Benchmarking a 2018 Toyota Camry 2.5-Liter Atkinson Cycle Engine with Cooled-EGR

2019-04-02
2019-01-0249
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies in support of regulatory and compliance programs, a 2018 Toyota Camry A25A-FKS 4-cylinder, 2.5-liter, naturally aspirated, Atkinson Cycle engine with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (cEGR) was benchmarked. The engine was tested on an engine dynamometer with and without its 8-speed automatic transmission, and with the engine wiring harness tethered to a complete vehicle parked outside of the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, onboard diagnostics (OBD) data, and Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded. This paper documents the test results under idle, low, medium, and high load engine operation. Motoring torque, wide open throttle (WOT) torque and fuel consumption are measured during transient operation using both EPA Tier 2 and Tier 3 test fuels.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Multiple Combustion Modes to Increase Efficiency and Achieve Full Load Dual-Fuel Operation in a Heavy-Duty Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1157
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) natural gas/diesel dual-fuel combustion has been shown to achieve high thermal efficiency with low NOX and PM emissions, but has traditionally been limited to low to medium loads. High BMEP operation typically requires high substitution rates (i.e., >90% NG), which can lead to high cylinder pressure, pressure rise rates, knock, and combustion loss. In previous studies, compression ratio was decreased to achieve higher load operation, but thermal efficiency was sacrificed. For this study, a multi-cylinder heavy-duty engine that has been modified for dual-fuel operation (diesel direct-injection and natural gas (NG) fumigated into the intake stream) was used to explore RCCI and other dual-fuel combustion modes at high compression ratio, while maintaining stock lug curve capability (i.e., extending dual-fuel operation to high loads where conventional diesel combustion traditionally had to be used).
Technical Paper

Fuel Reforming and Catalyst Deactivation Investigated in Real Exhaust Environment

2019-04-02
2019-01-0315
Increased in-cylinder hydrogen levels have been shown to improve burn durations, combustion stability, HC emissions and knock resistance which can directly translate into enhanced engine efficiency. External fuel reformation can also be used to increase the hydrogen yield. During the High-Efficiency, Dilute Gasoline Engine (HEDGE) consortium at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), the potential of increased hydrogen production in a dedicated-exhaust gas recirculation (D-EGR) engine was evaluated exploiting the water gas shift (WGS) and steam reformation (SR) reactions. It was found that neither approach could produce sustained hydrogen enrichment in a real exhaust environment, even while utilizing a lean-rich switching regeneration strategy. Platinum group metal (PGM) and Ni WGS catalysts were tested with a focus on hydrogen production and catalyst durability.
Technical Paper

EGR Cooler Field Return Rate Evaluation Based on Product and Application Variation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0915
The automotive industry drives some of the most stringent product requirements to ensure long product life and customer satisfaction. To demonstrate compliance with these requirements new and more accurate evaluation methods are needed. Thermal fatigue life in EGR coolers for heavy duty diesel applications have historically been a critical focus for engine OEMs. Being able to accurately evaluate product return rates due to thermal fatigue failures gives the OEM confidence that all end users will be satisfied, and allows program management to properly make fiscal decisions. Additionally, weight and cost optimization can be conducted with greater confidence. This is accomplished by accounting for product variation and application variation in thermal fatigue life evaluations. Including these variations requires a simplified numerical method to calculate product life, as tens of thousands of samples will be run through the analysis to represent real life random variation.
Technical Paper

Review of the Computer Science and Engineering Solutions for Model Sharing and Model Co-Simulation

2019-03-19
2019-01-1352
The process of developing, parameterizing, validating, and maintaining models occurs within a wide variety of tools, and requires significant time and resources. To maximize model utilization, models are often shared between various toolsets and experts. One common example is sharing aircraft engine models with airframers. The functionality of a given model may be utilized and shared with a secondary model, or multiple models may run collaboratively through co-simulation. There are many technical challenges associated with model sharing and co-simulation. For example, data communication between models and tools must be accurate and reliable, and the model usage must be well-documented and perspicuous for a user. This requires clear communication and understanding between computer scientists and engineers. Most often, models are developed by engineers, whereas the tools used to share the models are developed by computer scientists.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Diesel Spray with Non-Circular Nozzle - Part I: Inert Spray

2019-01-15
2019-01-0065
Numerous studies have characterized the impact of high injection pressure and small nozzle holes on spray quality and the subsequent impact on combustion. Higher injection pressure or smaller nozzle diameter usually reduce soot emissions owing to better atomization quality and fuel-air mixing enhancement. The influence of nozzle geometry on spray and combustion of diesel continues to be a topic of great research interest. An alternate approach impacting spray quality is investigated in this paper, specifically the impact of non-circular nozzles. The concept was explored experimentally in an optically accessible constant-volume combustion chamber (CVCC). Non-reacting spray evaluations were conducted at various ambient densities (14.8, 22.8, 30 kg/m3) under inert gas of Nitrogen (N2) while injection pressure was kept at 100 MPa. Shadowgraph imaging was used to obtain macroscopic spray characteristics such as spray structure, spray penetration, and the spray cone angle.
Journal Article

FSI - MRF Coupling Approach For Faster Turbocharger 3D Simulation

2019-01-15
2019-01-0007
Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) simulation approach can be used to simulate a turbocharger. However, this predictive 3D simulation encounters the challenge of a long computational time. The impeller speed can be above 100,000 rpm, and generally a CFD solver limits the maximum movement of the impeller surface per time step. The maximum movement must be a fraction (~0.3) of the cell length, thus the time step will be very small. A Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) approach can reduce computational time by eliminating the need to regenerate the mesh at each time-step to accommodate the moving geometry. A static local reference zone encompassing the impeller is created and the impact of the impeller movement is modeled via a momentum source. However, the MRF approach is not a predictive simulation because the impeller speed must be given by the User. A new simulation approach was introduced that coupled the FSI and MRF approach.
Journal Article

Model-Based Approaches in Developing an Advanced Aftertreatment System: An Overview

2019-01-15
2019-01-0026
Cummins has recently launched next-generation aftertreatment technology, the Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system, for medium-duty and heavy-duty engines used in on-highway and off-highway applications. Besides meeting EPA 2010+ and Euro VI regulations, the Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system offers 60% volume and 40% weight reductions compared to current aftertreatment systems. In this work, we present model-based approaches that were systematically adopted in the design and development of the Cummins Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system. Particularly, a variety of analytical and experimental component-level and system-level validation tools have been used to optimize DOC, DPF, SCR/ASC, as well as the DEF decomposition device.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Lubricant and Coolant Pumps for Parasitic Loss Reduction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0980
As fuel economy becomes increasingly important in all markets, complete engine system optimization is required to meet future standards. In many applications, it is difficult to realize the optimum coolant or lubricant pump without first evaluating different sets of engine hardware and iterating on the flow and pressure requirements. For this study, a Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) engine was run in a dynamometer test cell with full variability of the production coolant and lubricant pumps. Two test stands were developed to allow the engine coolant and lubricant pumps to be fully mapped during engine operation. The pumps were removed from the engine and powered by electric motors with inline torque meters. Each fluid circuit was instrumented with volume flow meters and pressure measurements at multiple locations. After development of the pump stands, research efforts were focused on hardware changes to reduce coolant and lubricant flow requirements of the HDD engine.
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