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Technical Paper

Multi-Domain Optimization for Fuel Economy Improvement of HD Trucks

Fuel usage negatively impacts the environment and is a significant portion of operational costs of moving freight globally. Reducing fuel consumption is key to lessening environmental impacts and maximizing freight efficiency, thereby increasing the profit margin of logistic operators. In this paper, fuel economy improvements of a cab-over style 49T heavy duty Foton truck powered by a Cummins 12-liter engine are studied and systematically applied for the China market. Most fuel efficiency improvements are found within the vehicle design when compared to opportunities available at the engine level. Vehicle design (improved aerodynamics), component selection/matching (low rolling resistance tires), and powertrain electronic features integration (shift schedule/electronic trim) offer the largest opportunities for lowering fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Design Validation of Medium Duty Truck Cooling System

Various 1D simulation tools (KULI & LMS Amesim) and 3D simulation tools (ANSYS FLUENT®) can be used to size and evaluate truck cooling system design. In this paper, ANSYS FLUENT is used to analyze and validate the design of medium duty truck cooling systems. LMS Amesim is used to verify the quality of heat exchanger input data. This paper discusses design and simulation of parent and derivative trucks. As a first step, the parent truck was modeled in FLUENT (using standard' k - ε model) with detailed fan and underhood geometry. The fan is modeled using Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) method. Detailed geometry of heat exchangers is skipped. The heat exchangers are represented by regular shape cell zones with porous medium and dual cell heat exchanger models to account for their contributions to the entire system in both flow and temperature distribution. Good agreement is observed between numerical and experimental engine out temperatures at different engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Aerodynamic Influence on Truck Platooning

This paper investigates the aerodynamic influence of multiple on-highway trucks in different platooning configurations. Complex pressure fields are generated on the highways due to interference of multiple vehicles. This pressure field causes an aerodynamic drag to be different than the aerodynamic drag of a vehicle in a no-traffic condition. In order to study the effect of platooning, three-dimensional modeling and numerical simulations were performed using STAR-CCM+® commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool. The aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles were analyzed in five different platooning configurations with two and three vehicles in single and multiple lanes. A significant Yaw Averaged Aerodynamic Drag (YAD) reduction was observed in both leading and trailing vehicles. YAD was based on the average result of three different yaw angles at 0°, −6° and 6°. In single-lane traffic, YAD reduction was up to 8% and 38% in leading and trailing vehicles, respectively.
Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Integrated Drivetrain NVH Phenomena

This paper demonstrates the use of a system level model that includes torsional models of a Cummins diesel engine and an Allison transmission to study and improve system NVH behavior. The study is a case where the two suppliers of key powertrain components, Cummins Inc. and Allison Transmission Inc., have collaborated to solve an observed NVH problem for a vehicle customer. A common commercial tool, Siemens' AMESim, was used to develop the drivetrain torsional system model. This paper describes a method of modelling and calibration of baseline engine and transmission models to identify the source of vibration. Natural frequencies, modal shapes, and forced response were calculated for each vehicle drive gear ratio to study the torsional vibration. Several parametric studies such as damping, inertia, and stiffness were carried out to understand their impact on torsional vibration of the system.
Technical Paper

Analysis Lead Drivability Assessment

Drivability and powertrain refinement continue to gain importance in the assessment of overall vehicle quality. This notion has transcended its light duty origins and is beginning to gain considerable traction in the medium and heavy duty markets. However, with drivability assessment and refinement also comes the high costs associated with vehicle testing, including items such as test facilities, prototype component evaluation, fuel and human resources. Taking all of this into account, any and all measures must be used to reduce the cost of drivability evaluation and powertrain refinement. This paper describes an analysis based co-simulation methodology, where sophisticated powertrain simulation and objective drivability evaluation tools can be used to predict vehicle drivability. A fast running GT power engine model combined with simplified controls representation in Matlab/Simulink was used to predict engine transients and responses.
Technical Paper

Advanced System Simulation Wheel Loader Model for Transient Response and Architecture Studies

Understanding the complex and dynamic nature of wheel-loader's operation requires a detailed system model. This paper describes the development of a conventional wheel-loader's system model that can be used to evaluate the transient response. The model includes engine details such as a mean value engine model, which takes into account turbocharger dynamics and engine governor controller. This allows the model to predict realistic performance and fuel consumption over a drive cycle. The wheel-loader machine is modeled in LMS Amesim® and the engine governor controller is modeled in Matlab/SIMULINK®. In order to simplify the model, hydraulic loads from the boom / bucket mechanism, steering and cooling fan are modeled as hydraulic load inputs obtained from typical short V-drive cycle. Critical wheel-loader drive cycle inputs into the model have been obtained from testing and have been used to validate the system response and cycle fuel consumption.